Reliability of human estimates of the presence of pups and the number of wolves vocalizing in chorus howls: implications for decision-making processes


Management decision-making processes require reliable tools providing information on the distribution, abundance, and trend of populations. Wolves vocalize in response to human imitations of howls. Traditionally, this phenomenon has been the basis of a widespread monitoring tool to assess the reproductive status in a wolf pack, as well as to estimate the… (More)
DOI: 10.1007/s10344-017-1115-4


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