Rabbits were immunized with a conjugate of leukotriene (LT) C4 and bovine serum albumin prepared by coupling the single free amino group of the hapten to the protein using gluteraldehyde. Binding of [3H]LTC4 to the antibodies obtained is inhibited by 50% with 1.5 ng LTC4. The relative cross-reaction of LTD4 is 16% and of LTC4-methyl ester 3.6%. The validity of the radioimmunoassay was demonstrated by comparison with bioassay using the isolated guinea pig ileum. Using the radioimmunoassay it could be shown that endogenous LTC4 is released in a dose-dependent manner by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes stimulated with the divalent cation ionophore A23187.