Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions

@article{Soderberg2006RelativisticEF,
  title={Relativistic ejecta from X-ray flash XRF 060218 and the rate of cosmic explosions},
  author={Alicia Margarita Soderberg and Shrinivas R. Kulkarni and Ehud Nakar and Edo Berger and P. Brian Cameron and Derek B. Fox and Dale A. Frail and Avishay Gal-yam and R. Sari and S. Bradley Cenko and Mansi M. Kasliwal and Roger A. Chevalier and Tsvi Piran and Paul A. Price and Brian P. Schmidt and Guy G. Pooley and Dae-Sik moon and Bryan Edward Penprase and Eran. O. Ofek and Arne Rau and N. C. Gehrels and J A Nousek and David N. Burrows and Sven Eric Persson and Patrick McCarthy},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2006},
  volume={442},
  pages={1014-1017}
}
Over the past decade, long-duration γ-ray bursts (GRBs)—including the subclass of X-ray flashes (XRFs)—have been revealed to be a rare variety of type Ibc supernova. Although all these events result from the death of massive stars, the electromagnetic luminosities of GRBs and XRFs exceed those of ordinary type Ibc supernovae by many orders of magnitude. The essential physical process that causes a dying star to produce a GRB or XRF, and not just a supernova, is still unknown. Here we report… 

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An optical supernova associated with the X-ray flash XRF 060218

The data, combined with radio and X-ray observations, suggest that XRF 060218 is an intrinsically weak and soft event, rather than a classical GRB observed off-axis, which extends the GRB–supernova connection to X-rays flashes and fainter supernovae, implying a common origin.

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