Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock.

@article{Wilson2016RelativisticEP,
  title={Relativistic Electrons Produced by Foreshock Disturbances Observed Upstream of Earth's Bow Shock.},
  author={Lynn Bruce Wilson and David Gary Sibeck and Drew L. Turner and Adnane Osmane and Damiano Caprioli and Vassilis Angelopoulos},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  year={2016},
  volume={117 21},
  pages={
          215101
        }
}
Charged particles can be reflected and accelerated by strong (i.e., high Mach number) astrophysical collisionless shock waves, streaming away to form a foreshock region in communication with the shock. Foreshocks are primarily populated by suprathermal ions that can generate foreshock disturbances-large-scale (i.e., tens to thousands of thermal ion Larmor radii), transient (∼5-10  per day) structures. They have recently been found to accelerate ions to energies of several keV. Although… 
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Energetic ion leakage from foreshock transient cores
Earth's foreshock is filled with backstreaming particles that can interact with the ambient solar wind and its discontinuities to form foreshock transients. Many foreshock transients have a core with
Observational Evidence for Stochastic Shock Drift Acceleration of Electrons at the Earth's Bow Shock.
TLDR
Direct evidence is presented for a novel stochastic shock drift acceleration theory for the injection obtained with Magnetospheric Multiscale observations at the Earth's bow shock, which may provide a solution to the long-standing issue of electron injection.
Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Observations of Magnetic Reconnection in Foreshock Transients
Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process of energy conversion in plasmas between electromagnetic fields and particles. Magnetic reconnection has been observed directly in a variety of plasmas
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