Relative exposure to β-carbolines norharman and harman from foods and tobacco smoke

  title={Relative exposure to $\beta$-carbolines norharman and harman from foods and tobacco smoke},
  author={T. Herraiz *},
  journal={Food Additives \& Contaminants},
  pages={1041 - 1050}
  • T. Herraiz *
  • Published 1 November 2004
  • Food Additives & Contaminants
Norharman and harman are two heterocyclic β-carboline (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) alkaloids with biological and potential toxicological activity that appear in foodstuffs and environmental sources. To assess the occurrence and distribution of these compounds and to estimate the exposure levels based on the detected amounts, numerous samples of foodstuffs and cigarette smoke were analysed by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence. The levels found of… 

β-carbolines norharman and harman in vegetable oils in China

Oil consumption, especially of oils obtained after roasting of the seeds, was a major dietary source of the β-carbolines norharman and harman, two heterocyclic aromatic amines with potential mutagenicity, which contribute to the unprecedented and essential information for dietary assessments associated with oil consumption.

Degradation of β-Carbolines Harman and Norharman in Edible Oils during Heating

The β-carbolines, mainly including harman and norharman, are a group of naturally occurring, plant-derived alkaloids, and are also considered as nonpolar heterocyclic aromatic amines. Sesame seed

Analysis of heterocyclic amines and β-carbolines by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry in cooked meats commonly consumed in Korea

  • Y. BackJ.H. LeeH. ShinK. Lee
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment
  • 2009
The griddled pork loin and bacon contained higher levels of norharman, harman and PhIP than the other cooked meats.

The effect of onion and garlic on non-polar heterocyclic aromatic amines (α-, β-, γ- and δ-carbolines) formation in pan-fried meat and gravy

The percentage of carbolines in the gravies was higher in dishes prepared with onion and garlic than in dishes without these seasonings, and the number of co-mutagenic β-carbolines caused an increase in the norharmane concentration both in meat and gravy.

Large-Scale Screening of Foods for Glucose-Derived β-Carboline Alkaloids by Stable Isotope Dilution LC-MS/MS.

The consumption of processed tomato-based products accounts for the majority of the total daily intake of the investigated β-carbolines; the potential bioactivities of Tan E, Tan F, and DH-Tan E/F have yet to be investigated.

Blood Harmane Concentrations in 497 Individuals Relative to Coffee, Cigarettes, and Food Consumption on the Morning of Testing

BHCs in this sample of ~500 individuals did not covary with recent smoking, coffee, or food consumption, suggesting that the inability to withhold these exposures on the morning of phlebotomy was not reflected in the BHCs the authors measured.

Assessment of dietary exposure to heterocyclic amines based on the Korean total diet study

The estimated daily intake of all HCAs in the Korean population was considered safe, and among HCAs, the intake of β-carbolines, such as harman and norharman, was the highest, followed by the Intake of PhIP.

β-Carbolines in Experiments on Laboratory Animals

The results of in vitro studies—particularly the level of the expression in brain tissue of genes associated with aging processes and neurodegenerative diseases—clearly show the benefits of a diet rich in β-carbolines.



Identification and occurrence of the bioactive β-carbolines norharman and harman in coffee brews

  • T. Herraiz
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Food additives and contaminants
  • 2002
It is concluded that drinking coffee is a major exogenous dietary source of these bioactive β -carboline alkaloids previously reported as mild psychoactive compounds in animal studies and in vitro co-mutagens.

Plasma norharman (beta-carboline) levels are elevated in chronic alcoholics.

The results suggest disturbed regulatory processes in the formation and/or metabolism of norharman in alcoholics and further investigations are needed to reveal a possible marker function of norHarman in alcoholic patients.

Tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid compounds in fish and meat: possible precursors of co-mutagenic beta-carbolines norharman and harman in cooked foods

  • T. Herraiz
  • Chemistry
    Food additives and contaminants
  • 2000
The tetrahydro-beta-carbolines THCA and MTCA were chemical precursors of the co-mutagens norharman and harman during cooking, and these and previous results confirm that foods are an important source of beta- carbolines in humans.

Tetrahydro-β-carboline Alkaloids that Occur in Foods and Biological Systems Act as Radical Scavengers and Antioxidants in the ABTS Assay

The results suggest that food and naturally-occurring tetrahydro- g -carboline alkaloids if accumulated in tissues, as reported elsewhere, might exhibit antioxidant activity.

Occurrence of tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acids in commercial foodstuffs

The occurrence of tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acids (THβC-3-COOHs) in foodstuffs was investigated. Spectral and chromatographic data showed the occurrence of

Structural determination of a mutagenic aminophenylnorharman produced by the co-mutagen norharman with aniline.

The appearance of mutagenicity by norharman with aniline in the presence of S9 mix suggests that the coupled mutagenic compound, aminophenylnorharman, is formed from norHarman and anilines, then converted to the hydroxyamino derivative and forms DNA adducts to induce mutations in TA98 and YG1024.