Project LifeSkills - a randomized controlled efficacy trial of a culturally tailored, empowerment-based, and group-delivered HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women: study protocol
BACKGROUND Two risk-reduction counseling sessions can prevent sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, return rates for test results are low. STUDY A randomized, controlled trial compared rapid HIV testing and counseling in 1 visit with standard HIV testing and counseling in 2 visits. Main outcomes were STDs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, syphilis, HIV) within 12 months. Participants were 15- to 39-year-old STD clinic patients in Denver, Long Beach, and Newark. STD screening and questionnaires were administered every 3 months. RESULTS Counseling was completed by 1632 of 1648 (99.0%) of the rapid-test group and 1144 of 1649 (69.4%) of the standard-test group. By 12 months, STD was acquired by 19.1% of the rapid group and 17.1% of the standard group (relative risk [RR], 1.11; confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.29). STD incidence was higher in the rapid-test group than in the standard-test group among men (RR, 1.34; CI, 1.06-1.70), men who had sex with men (RR, 1.86; 95% CI, 0.92-3.76), and persons with no STDs at enrollment (RR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.99-1.48). Behavior was similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS Counseling with either test had similar effects on STD incidence. For some persons, counseling with standard testing may be more effective than counseling with rapid testing.