Relative age effect in Spanish association football: Its extent and implications for wasted potential

  title={Relative age effect in Spanish association football: Its extent and implications for wasted potential},
  author={Idafe P{\'e}rez Jim{\'e}nez and Matthew T. G. Pain},
  journal={Journal of Sports Sciences},
  pages={1003 - 995}
Abstract Spain is one of the largest and most successful powers in international youth football, but this success has not extended to the national team. This lack of continued success seems to indicate a loss of potential. The relative age effect has been detected in football in many countries. Understanding the extent of this bias in the youth teams of Spanish elite clubs may help to improve selection processes and reduce the waste of potential. Comparisons between players from: the Spanish… 

The relative age effect in youth soccer players from Spain.

There was RAE in all groups analyzed, although only the Elite groups showed significant variations in birth-date distribution in relation to the general population.

The relative age effect in youth soccer players from Spain.

The purpose of this study was to identify the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE) at youth level in both elite and amateur Spanish soccer clubs, and also to carry out an analysis providing with

The Relative Age Effect On The Selection In The Slovakia National Football Teams

Summary The focus of this research was to determine the relative age effect (RAE) on selection in the Slovakia national football teams. A factor that may have a significant impact on the quality of

The relative age effect in a professional football club setting

Between-group comparison revealed that the relative age effect incidence progressively increased with a higher level of involvement in youth football, representing a significant loss of potential youth football talent.

An Investigation of Danish Male Youth Football – Is Something Rotten in the State of Denmark?

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of relative age effect (RAE) in youth football in Denmark. RAE is a well-established phenomenon in elite sports across the globe

Are Soccer and Futsal Affected by the Relative Age Effect? The Portuguese Football Association Case

Data showed a RAE in female and male youth soccer and futsal, particularly in male, younger age categories, and in clubs and academies having a higher certification level, which could be accompanied by a loss of valuable elite players during the youth phase of their careers.

The relative age effect and success in German elite U-17 soccer teams

There was a significant correlation between the relative age effect and success defined by teams' final rankings, and with a median of birth dates one month earlier the team is expected to finish 1.035 ranks better.

Evidence for the Relative Age Effect in the Spanish Professional Soccer League

It is concluded that the relative age effect is consistent and exists throughout Spanish soccer, whether at youth or professional levels, while in clubs the effect continued to be significantly present in all cases investigated.

Laterality related to the successive selection of Dutch national youth soccer players

The conclusion is that left-foot preference increases the probability of selection in Dutch national youth soccer teams.



The relative age effect in youth soccer across Europe

The results showed an over-representation of players born in the first quarter of the selection year for all the national youth selections at the under-15, under-16, U-17 and U-18 age categories, as well as for the UEFA U-16 tournaments and Meridian Cup.

The influence of relative age on success and dropout in male soccer players

Results indicated that youth players born from August to October (the early part of the selection year), beginning in the 6–8 year age group, are more likely to be identified as talented and to be exposed to higher levels of coaching, and to become involved professionally.

The relative age effect in soccer: A match-related perspective

It is suggested that match-based variables may provide a more reliable indication of the relative age effect in soccer.

Unequal Competition as an Impediment to Personal Development: A Review of the Relative Age Effect in Sport☆

Abstract Children born shortly before the cutoff date for age grouping in youth sport programs suffer from being promoted to higher age groups earlier than their later-born peers. Skewed birthdate

Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill level

Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill.

Psychological characteristics and talent identification in soccer

  • T. Morris
  • Psychology
    Journal of sports sciences
  • 2000
It is concluded that cross-sectional research on adults cannot be extrapolated for use in talent identification with adolescents and it is proposed that resources would be more effectively used in the provision of psychological skills training for adolescent soccer players, pending more sophisticated research on a wider range of psychological variables.

Maturity-associated variation in sport-specific skills of youth soccer players aged 13 – 15 years

Age, experience, body size and stage of puberty contributed relatively little to variation in performance in four of the six soccer-specific skill tests in adolescent footballers aged 13 – 15 years.

Maturity-associated variation in the growth and functional capacities of youth football (soccer) players 13–15 years

Biological maturity status significantly influences the functional capacity of adolescent football players 13–15 years of age, whereas training is a significant contributor to aerobic resistance, whereas weight and height are significant contributors to the sprint and vertical jump, respectively.

A multidisciplinary approach to talent identification in soccer

The test battery used may be useful in establishing baseline reference data for young players being selected onto specialized development programmes, and the most discriminating of the measures were agility, sprint time, ego orientation and anticipation skill.

Season-of-birth bias in association football

It is concluded that there is indeed a bias towards selecting older children in boys selected for the Football Association National School, and analysis of separate data revealed a shift of bias when comparing two different start dates, namely September and January.