Relative Contribution of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Tic Severity to Social and Behavioral Problems in Tic Disorders

@article{Hoekstra2004RelativeCO,
  title={Relative Contribution of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, and Tic Severity to Social and Behavioral Problems in Tic Disorders},
  author={Pieter J. Hoekstra and M P Steenhuis and Pieter W. Troost and J. Korf and Cees G. M. Kallenberg and Ruud B. Minderaa},
  journal={Journal of Developmental \& Behavioral Pediatrics},
  year={2004},
  volume={25},
  pages={272-279}
}
ABSTRACT. The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire. Patients with a tic disorder with primarily hyperactive-impulsive ADHD had the highest… 
Impact of obsessive-compulsive behavior on the psychopathological profile of children with chronic tic disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
TLDR
The results indicate that OCS have a great impact on psychopathology associated with CTD and a slight impact on ADHD-related symptoms, and point out that optimal treatment planning should consider all symptoms and problems because children's main problems might not always be caused by the main diagnoses.
Tic disorders and ADHD: answers from a world-wide clinical dataset on Tourette syndrome
TLDR
Clinically the findings confirm other research indicating the importance of ADHD in understanding the behavioural problems often associated with the diagnosis of TS and additional ADHD comorbidity should be taken into account in diagnosis, management, and training.
Tic disorders and ADHD: answers from a world-wide clinical dataset on Tourette syndrome
TLDR
Clinically the findings confirm other research indicating the importance of ADHD in understanding the behavioural problems often associated with the diagnosis of TS, and additional ADHD comorbidity should be taken into account in diagnosis, management, and training.
Psychopathological Profile in Children with Chronic Tic Disorder and Co-existing ADHD: Additive Effects
TLDR
While CTD and ADHD were both related to internalizing psychopathology of children in the CTD+ADHD group, ADHD had the largest effect on externalizing psychopathological in the comorbid group.
Quality of Life Among Children and Adolescents With Tourette Disorder and Comorbid ADHD: A Clinical Controlled Study
TLDR
Children with TD + ADHD have lower QOL than their peers with ADHD alone and family functioning seems to affect QOL in both groups.
ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF LEARNING AND COGNITIVE CONTROL IN CHILDREN WITH TICS WITH AND WITHOUT ADHD SYMPTOMS
TLDR
The findings of this study indicate that comorbid ADHD symptoms introduce impairments in young people with TS that will negatively impact upon the ability to control tics.
Chronic tic disorders in children with ADHD
TLDR
CTD prevalence is higher in children with ADHD compared with controls, and confers substantial additional psychiatric and functional burden, and Clinicians need to consider CTD in both the initial assessment and ongoing management ofChildren with ADHD.
Developmental psychopathology of children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome – impact of ADHD
TLDR
Children with TS+ADHD have more comorbidities than the TS−ADHD group, whereas in both adolescent groups this did no longer hold for OCD and anxiety disorders, which indicates that in TS COMorbid ADHD is associated with high rates of externalizing and internalizing problems, whereas TS without ADHD isassociated only with internalize problems in adolescence.
Parent and Self-Report Health-Related Quality of Life Measures in Young Patients With Tourette Syndrome
TLDR
Children and parents may not share similar views about the impact of Tourette syndrome on functioning, and there were differences for total, school, and home activities impairment scores.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, tics and Tourette’s syndrome: the relationship and treatment implications. A commentary
  • M. Robertson
  • Psychology, Medicine
    European child & adolescent psychiatry
  • 2006
TLDR
The comorbidity between TS and ADHD is discussed and treatment suggestions are offered, including atomoxetine, which although not documented widely in the setting of tics and TS, may prove useful in this setting; further research is required.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 43 REFERENCES
Comparative Study of the Behavioral and Neuropsychologic Characteristics of Tic Disorder With or Without Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
TLDR
The tic disorder with ADHD group might represent a true comorbidity of the two disorders, and has marked cognitive deficits and behavioral disturbance similar to the ADHD group, whereas the tic Disorder group is more similar toThe controls.
Comparison of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid tic disorder.
TLDR
The relatively higher rate of comorbidity in the ADHD/+tics group suggests that tics may be a marker for more severe symptomatology in clinic-referred samples of children with ADHD.
Impact of tic disorders on ADHD outcome across the life cycle: findings from a large group of adults with and without ADHD.
TLDR
Findings in adults with ADHD confirm and extend previous findings in young subjects with ADHD, documenting that although individuals with ADHD are at greater risk for tic disorders, the presence of tic Disorders has a limited impact on ADHD outcome.
Aggressive Behaviour in Children with Tourette Syndrome and Comorbid Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive—Compulsive Disorder
TLDR
Findings provide additional evidence that aggressive behaviour observed in children with TS may be associated with comorbid ADHD or OCD, independent of tic severity or age.
Executive function in children with Tourette Syndrome and/or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
TLDR
It is suggested that deficiencies in choice reaction time and consistency of timed responses are common to all three groups, but children with TS-only have relatively less EF impairment thanChildren with TS+ADHD or ADHD-only.
Brief report: cognitive functioning in children with Tourette's syndrome with and without comorbid ADHD.
TLDR
Results confirm prior findings that comorbid ADHD is associated with more TS symptoms and worse psychosocial and cognitive functioning, and motivate whether cognitive flexibility plays a role in moderating the deleterious psychossocial effects of Tourette's syndrome and ADHD.
Anxiety disorders and tic severity in juveniles with Tourette's disorder.
TLDR
It is suggested that non-OCD anxiety disorders in general and separation anxiety disorder in particular may be significantly associated with tic severity in referred TD patients.
Distinguishing illness severity from tic severity in children and adolescents with Tourette's disorder.
TLDR
The findings indicate that comorbid mood disorders are strongly associated with illness morbidity in youths with Tourette's disorder, highlighting the importance of attention toComorbidity in patients with TD.
Disentangling the overlap between Tourette's disorder and ADHD.
TLDR
These findings confirm previously noted associations between Tourette's syndrome and OCD but suggest that disruptive behavioral, mood, and anxiety disorders as well as cognitive dysfunctions may be accounted for by comorbidity with ADHD.
A controlled family history study of Tourette's syndrome, I: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disorders.
TLDR
The data on first-degree relatives suggest that when the Gts gene is expressed in this form, in two thirds of the cases tics are also present and in one third they are not, consistent with the proposal that ADHD and learning disorders form an integral part of the expression of the GTS gene or genes.
...
...