Relative Age Effects are a developmental problem in tennis: but not necessarily when you’re left‐handed!

  title={Relative Age Effects are a developmental problem in tennis: but not necessarily when you’re left‐handed!},
  author={Florian Loffing and J. Schorer and Stephen Paul Cobley},
  journal={High Ability Studies},
  pages={19 - 25}
Relative Age Effects (RAEs), describing attainment inequalities as a result of interactions between biological age and age‐grouping procedures, have been demonstrated across many sports contexts. This study examined whether an additional individual characteristic (i.e., handedness) mediated RAEs in tennis. Relative age and handedness distributions of 1027 male professional tennis players ranked in the year‐end ATP Top 500 for 2000–2006 were analyzed. Relatively older players, born in the first… 

Handedness and Relative Age in International Elite Interactive Individual Sports Revisited

The hypothesis that left-handedness helps override birth-related inequalities in high sporting achievement in elite interactive individual sports in interactive sports is not supported.

Left-Handedness in Professional and Amateur Tennis

The positive impact of left-handed performance on high achievement in elite tennis was moderate and decreased in male professionals over time and was almost absent in female professionals, in accordance with the frequency-dependent hypothesis.

Evidence of relative age effects in Swedish women's ice hockey

Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to consequences of differences in chronological age among individuals within age-grouped cohorts. RAEs advantage relatively older players and have consistently been

The Relative Age Effect in Sport: A Developmental Systems Model

This paper reviews and summarizes the existing literature on relative age in sport, and proposes a constraints-based developmental systems model for RAEs in sport.

Examining Variations Between Everyday Life Handedness and Lateral Preferences for Sport-Specific Skills in Children.

Purpose: This study aimed to analyze both sport-specific lateral preferences and handedness for everyday life tasks among school-aged children. Method: A total of 533 children (254 males and 279

Developmental contexts, depth of competition and relative age effects in sport: A database analysis and a quasi- experiment

AbstractImproving learning environments requires an understanding of biases and restrictions of current environments. The widely used policy of grouping youth into 'age groups' for education and

Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences

It is concluded that task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of evolutionary theories of handedness.

The Relative Age Effect and Physical Fitness Characteristics in German Male Tennis Players.

Players born later in the selection year and still selected in elite squads were likely to be similar across a range of physical fitness attributes compared with those born earlier in the year, and the selection process should be reevaluated and changed to reduce the impact of RAEs on tennis players.

Relative age effects

The process of annual age-grouping, applied most commonly in school and sport, has been shown to produce a developmental climate that provides advantages to some while disadvantaging others. This

Relative Age Effect in Swedish Male and Female Tennis Players Born in 1998–2001

Suggestions made in this article include recognising RAE when designing the format of competitions/tournaments, not using official rankings until the juniors get older, addressing RAE in a "gender sensitive" way, and conducting further in-depth studies in which RAE is understood/examined as being associated with environmental factors.



Handedness and Professional Tennis

  • D. W. Holtzen
  • Psychology
    The International journal of neuroscience
  • 2000
The findings indirectly support the notion that LH people have neuroanatomically-based advantages in performing certain neurocognitive tasks, such as visuospatial and gross (whole body) visuormotor tasks.

Relative age, talent identification and youth skill development: Do relatively younger athletes have superior technical skills?

Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to differences among individuals in age-based cohorts typically used in sport. These effects usually favour relatively older members of the cohort and are thought to

Influences of competition level, gender, player nationality, career stage and playing position on relative age effects

Three studies try to bridge the gap by investigating several moderators for relative age effects (RAEs) in one sport, Handball, by investigating the influence of competition level and gender on RAEs before adulthood and providing evidence toward explaining how Raes influence the development and maintenance of expertise.

The advantage of being left-handed in interactive sports

  • N. Hagemann
  • Psychology
    Attention, perception & psychophysics
  • 2009
The results showed that all three groups were better at predicting the direction of strokes by right-handed players, which supports the hypothesis that the overrepresentation of left-handers in the expert domain is partly due to perceptual frequency effects.

Unequal Competition as an Impediment to Personal Development: A Review of the Relative Age Effect in Sport☆

Abstract Children born shortly before the cutoff date for age grouping in youth sport programs suffer from being promoted to higher age groups earlier than their later-born peers. Skewed birthdate

Hand preference and age in the United States

Frequency-dependent maintenance of left handedness in humans

It is proposed that left handers have a frequency-dependent advantage in fights and for that reason a fitness advantage in some situations and this might explain the stability of left handedness.

Annual Age-Grouping and Athlete Development

This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine the overall prevalence and strength of Raes across and within sports, and identify moderator variables.

Relative age effects

The process of annual age-grouping, applied most commonly in school and sport, has been shown to produce a developmental climate that provides advantages to some while disadvantaging others. This

“Born to Play Ball” The Relative Age Effect and Major League Baseball

The records of 837 major league baseball players were examined in order to determine whether the Little League age eligibility criterion, based on the month of birth, affected participation rate at