Relationships Among Magnetic Clouds, CMES, and Geomagnetic Storms

  title={Relationships Among Magnetic Clouds, CMES, and Geomagnetic Storms},
  author={Chin-Chun Wu and Ronald P. Lepping and Nat Gopalswamy},
  journal={Solar Physics},
During solar cycle 23, 82 interplanetary magnetic clouds (MCs) were identified by the Magnetic Field Investigation (MFI) team using Wind (1995 – 2003) solar wind plasma and magnetic field data from solar minimum through the maximum of cycle 23. The average occurrence rate is 9.5 MCs per year for the overall period. It is found that some of the anomalies in the frequency of occurrence were during the early part of solar cycle 23: (i) only four MCs were observed in 1999, and (ii) an unusually… 

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