Perioperative inflammatory response in major fracture: do geriatric patients behave differently?
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between the operation time of femur shaft fracture with post-operation system inflammation changes and clinical outcomes for those multiple fractures. METHODS This investigation was designed as a prospective, nonrandomized cohort study. From April 2005 to August 2007, all 78 hospitalized patients were divided into 3 groups by an inclusion criteria: multiple fractures with opened fracture of femur shaft (group A, n = 26), multiple fractures with closed fracture of femur shaft (group B, n = 23), single closed fracture of femur shaft (group C, n = 29). In the group A, damage control orthopaedics (DCO) procedure were performed. In the group B and C, all the femur shaft fractures were performed intramedullary nail fixation early (< 24 h). From serially sampled venous blood, inflammatory reaction index were estimated by measured the concentration of IL-6, TNF-alpha surround the operation, and the conditions of multiple organs were estimated by assayed PaO2/FiO2, total bilirubin (TBIL), creatinine (Cr) levels, the postoperation complication rates were analyzed among each groups. The extent of inflammation changes, multiple organs damage conditions and postoperation complication rates were compared and analyzed among the 3 groups. RESULTS In the group A, the median increase values of IL-6,TNF-alpha after the secondary surgery were 59 ng/L and 85 ng/L, whereas they were 154 ng/L and 250 ng/L respectively in the group B, there was a significant difference between the 2 groups (P < 0.01). In addition, the median increase values of IL-6, TNF-alpha after the first surgery in group A and in group C were both significantly less than group B (P < 0.01). Correspondingly, the abnormal rates of PaO2/ FiO2, TBIL, Cr levels occurred in the group B were all greater than group A after the 2 surgery procedures (P < 0.05), and in the aspects of average ventilation days, ICU staying days, duration of positive fluid balance (input/output > 500 ml/24 h), the group B were all greater than group A after the second surgery ( P < 0.01). Compared with group A after the first surgery, group B showed a longer average ventilation days, but it had no significant difference in average ICU stay days and duration of positive fluid balance. In addition, for group C, all the aspects above were less than group B (P < 0.01). Concerned with the complications after surgery in each groups, fat embolism and MODS rate between group A and B had no significant difference (11.5% vs 13.0% ,P > 0.05), but higher than which of group C (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The early intramedullary nail fixation of femur shaft fracture in multiple fractures may lead to a significant system inflammation changes, and may develop the subclinical changes of multiple organs. However, these changes are less in those surgery procedures later performed, namely intramedullary nail fixation of femur shaft fracture in multiple fractures as a primary definitive treatment has a potential risk, and should be carefully evaluated.