This study examined the association between all-cause/cardiovascular mortality and PM(2.5) as related to Asian dust (AD), smog-AD, smog, and nonevent days and evaluated the differential risks according to specific events for mortality. The daily records of all-cause/cardiovascular mortality and PM(2.5) from March to May 2003-2006 in Seoul, Korea, were used as independent and dependent variables. Differences in the event effects were assessed using a time-series analysis. Both all-cause and cardiovascular mortalities were significantly associated with PM(2.5) during smog-AD and AD days only. Differences in chemical composition emerging during long-range transport to Korea may explain these observations, especially as regards secondary aerosol, metal-sulfate/or nitrate, and metallic components. These results suggest that exposure to PM(2.5) during specific events is differentially associated with human mortality and that changes in the chemical composition of PM(2.5), occurring during long-range transport, represent important factors in such differential effects on health.