Relationship between Radiographic Abnormalities of Lumbar Spine and Incidence of Low Back Pain in High School and College Football Players

@article{Iwamoto2004RelationshipBR,
  title={Relationship between Radiographic Abnormalities of Lumbar Spine and Incidence of Low Back Pain in High School and College Football Players},
  author={Jun Iwamoto and Hitoshi Abe and Yasunori Tsukimura and Koichi Wakano},
  journal={The American Journal of Sports Medicine},
  year={2004},
  volume={32},
  pages={781 - 786}
}
Background Low back pain is a common presenting symptom among players of American football. In Japan, however, skeletal disorders in football players, including low back problems, have been rarely studied, and management to prevent skeletal disorders has not been established. Study Design An epidemiological study with prospective observation. Methods The authors analyzed the relationship between lumbar spine abnormalities viewed through radiographs taken during the preparticipation physical… 
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It is indicated that football players entering college at the Division I level may have a similar prevalence of radiographic lumbar spine abnormalities, including spondylolysis andspondylolisthesis, as age-matched controls.
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It appears that lumbar spondylolysis is of minimal clinical significance over a short (four-year) period over college football players over an eight-year period.
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The anatomical dissection did not differentiate between separate neural arch (bilateral sponylolysis) and spondylolisthesis, and Wiltse24 states that many patients with known bilateralSpondylolysis can be converted to spONDylolism by applying a load to the lumbosacral joint at the time of x-ray.
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Male gymnasts had significantly increased incidence and severity of back pain as compared to the rest of the athletes, and athletes with great demands on the back are subjected to an increased risk of symptomatic damage of the spine.
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Radiographic study with dynamic views obtained in the frontal and lateral planes identify unstable states in the clinical environment and indicates that a certain mechanical threshold has been reached or transgressed.
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The magnitude of the loads on the L4-5 motion segment during foot ball blocking exceed those determined during fatigue studies to cause pathologic changes in both the lumbar disk and the pars interarticularis.
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