Relationship Between the Endophyte Embellisia spp. and the Toxic Alkaloid Swainsonine in Major Locoweed Species (Astragalus and Oxytropis)

@article{Ralphs2007RelationshipBT,
  title={Relationship Between the Endophyte Embellisia spp. and the Toxic Alkaloid Swainsonine in Major Locoweed Species (Astragalus and Oxytropis)},
  author={Michael H. Ralphs and Rebecca Creamer and Deana L. Baucom and Dale R Gardner and Stanley L. Welsh and J. Doug Graham and C. Hart and Daniel Cook and Bryan L. Stegelmeier},
  journal={Journal of Chemical Ecology},
  year={2007},
  volume={34},
  pages={32-38}
}
Locoweeds (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp. that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine) cause widespread poisoning of livestock on western rangelands. There are 354 species of Astragalus and 22 species of Oxytropis in the US and Canada. Recently, a fungal endophyte, Embellisia spp., was isolated from Astragalus and Oxytropis spp. and shown to produce swainsonine. We conducted a survey of the major locoweeds from areas where locoweed poisoning has occurred to verify the presence of the endophyte… Expand
Detection of swainsonine and isolation of the endophyte Undifilum from the major locoweeds in Inner Mongolia
TLDR
Locoweeds are Astragalus and Oxytropis species that contain the toxic alkaloid swainsonine, causing widespread poisoning of livestock in Inner Mongolia, and the quinolizidine alkaloids, sophoridine, sophocarpine, and sophoramine were detected in Sophora alopecuroides as previously reported. Expand
Detection of swainsonine-producing endophytes in Patagonian Astragalus species.
TLDR
Swainsonine was detected in field collections of A. pehuenches, A. illinii and A. chamissonis but not in A. moyanoi, which is consistent with reports of toxicity regarding these species. Expand
Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endophyte in the host Swainsona canescens.
TLDR
Swainsona canescens is shown to harbor an endophyte that is closely related to Undifilum species previously cultured from locoweeds of North America and Asia, and was characterized as an UndifILum species using morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Expand
Swainsonine-producing fungal endophytes from major locoweed species in China.
TLDR
PCR-RFLP analysis of IGS region showed that the interspecific or intraspecific variations were present among the endophytes from different locoweed species, classified as Undifilim oxytropis according to the fungal morphology and phylogenetic analysis based on sufficient ITS sequences. Expand
Swainsoninine Concentrations and Endophyte Amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in Different Plant Parts of Oxytropis sericea
TLDR
Findings provide evidence as to why plants in the same population accumulate different concentrations of swainsonine, and they have important implications for sampling of locoweed plants. Expand
Influence of seed endophyte amounts on swainsonine concentrations in Astragalus and Oxytropis locoweeds.
TLDR
Rec reproducible interconversion between the two swainsonine chemotypes suggests that the quantity of endophyte present in the seed at the time of germination is a key determinant of the eventual chemotype. Expand
The toxicology mechanism of endophytic fungus and swainsonine in locoweed.
TLDR
Current research on locoweed is reviewed, including that on locowingeed species distribution in China, endophyte fungus in locow Reed, the toxicology mechanism of locoweeds, and the swainsonine effect on reproduction. Expand
Transmission of the locoweed endophyte to the next generation of plants
TLDR
It appears that U. oxytropis has near perfect vertical transmission to the next generation of seedlings, however, a small proportion of the progeny had low endophyte/low or no swainsonine, and this characteristic was inherited in the nextgeneration. Expand
Influence of endophyte genotype on swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea.
TLDR
It is shown that the genotype of the endophyte is responsible for the differences in swainsonine concentrations observed in the two populations of O. sericea. Expand
Production of the alkaloid swainsonine by a fungal endosymbiont of the Ascomycete order Chaetothyriales in the host Ipomoea carnea.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that I. carnea plants are infected with a fungal endosymbiont that was cultured from its seeds and which produced swainsonine in pure culture but not the calystegines, which are glycosidase inhibitors. Expand
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TLDR
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TLDR
It is suspected that a plant fungal endophyte may be responsible for the high variability in swainsonine content in populations of O. lambertii, the major locoweed responsible for livestock poisoning on rangelands. Expand
The toxicosis of Embellisia fungi from locoweed (Oxytropis lambertii) is similar to locoweed toxicosis in rats.
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TLDR
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TLDR
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TLDR
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