Relationship Between Clinical Signs and Transmission of an Infectious Disease and the Implications for Control

@article{Charleston2011RelationshipBC,
  title={Relationship Between Clinical Signs and Transmission of an Infectious Disease and the Implications for Control},
  author={Bryan Charleston and Bartlomies M Bankowski and Simon Gubbins and Margo Chase-Topping and David Schley and Richard S. Howey and Paul V. Barnett and Debi Gibson and Nicholas Juleff and Mark E. J. Woolhouse},
  journal={Science},
  year={2011},
  volume={332},
  pages={726 - 729}
}
Livestock experiments provide precise parameters for incubation and infectious periods for foot-and-mouth disease virus. Control of many infectious diseases relies on the detection of clinical cases and the isolation, removal, or treatment of cases and their contacts. The success of such “reactive” strategies is influenced by the fraction of transmission occurring before signs appear. We performed experimental studies of foot-and-mouth disease transmission in cattle and estimated this fraction… 
Understanding foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission biology: identification of the indicators of infectiousness
TLDR
This study is the first to identify statistically significant indicators of infectiousness for FMDV at defined time periods during disease progression in a natural host species.
Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus during the Incubation Period in Pigs
TLDR
Transmission and dissemination of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMD) within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection was investigated and it is suggested that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for F MDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection.
Quantifying the Transmission of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus in Cattle via a Contaminated Environment
TLDR
Estimated viral decay rates suggest that FMDV remained viable in this environment for up to 14 days, emphasizing the requirement for stringent biosecurity procedures following outbreaks of FMD and the design of control measures that reflect the biology of a pathogen.
Diagnosing the Individual to Control the Epidemic
  • G. Medley
  • Medicine
    Science Translational Medicine
  • 2011
TLDR
The role of experimental research in determining the biology of infection as well as the importance of diagnosis for epidemic control are considered.
Understanding the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus at different scales.
Duration of Contagion of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus in Infected Live Pigs and Carcasses
TLDR
The output from this study consists of experimentally determined data on contagion associated with FMDV-infected pigs, which may be utilized to update parameterization of models used for foot-and-mouth disease outbreak simulations involving areas of substantial pig production.
Quantitative impacts of incubation phase transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus
TLDR
Simulation of FMD outbreaks in the US pig production sector demonstrated that including a preclinical infectious period of one day would result in a 40% increase in the median number of farms affected compared to the scenario of no preclinical transmission, assuming suboptimal outbreak response.
Foot-and-mouth disease virus transmission dynamics and persistence in a herd of vaccinated dairy cattle in India.
TLDR
Estimation of parameters associated with within-herd FMD transmission, host physiological factors and FMD virus (FMDV) persistence using data collected from an outbreak that occurred at a large, organized dairy farm in India and characterizes duration of FMDV persistence and seroprevalence of F MD under natural conditions in an endemic setting.
Predicting the Ability of Preclinical Diagnosis To Improve Control of Farm-to-Farm Foot-and-Mouth Disease Transmission in Cattle
TLDR
Preclinical detection during outbreaks has the potential to allow earlier culling of infected herds and thereby reduce transmission and aid the control of epidemics.
Redefining the “carrier” state for foot-and-mouth disease from the dynamics of virus persistence in endemically affected cattle populations
TLDR
This work develops a mixed effects logistic regression model to predict the probability of recovering viable FMDV by probang and culture, conditional on the animal’s age and time since last reported outbreak, and provides a set of predictive tools to use alongside NSP ELISAs to help target persistently infected cattle.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 27 REFERENCES
Factors that make an infectious disease outbreak controllable.
TLDR
It is concluded that severe acute respiratory syndrome and smallpox are easier to control using these simple public health measures and should be a priority during an outbreak of a novel infectious agent.
Parameterization of the duration of infection stages of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus: an analytical review and meta-analysis with application to simulation models
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is considered one of the most important infectious diseases of livestock because of the devastating economic consequences that it inflicts in affected regions. The value
Options for control of foot-and-mouth disease: knowledge, capability and policy
TLDR
A progressive approach is needed that can provide interim benefits along the pathway to final eradication and research is needed to understand and predict the patterns of viral persistence and emergence and to improve vaccine selection.
Effect of the initial dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus on the early viral dynamics within pigs
TLDR
It is shown that the general trend in the data can be explained by varying only the initial dose of FMD virus, and the higher the initial doses the earlier the development of a detectable viral load.
Does Influenza Transmission Occur from Asymptomatic Infection or Prior to Symptom Onset?
TLDR
There is scant, if any, evidence that asymptomatic or presymPTomatic individuals play an important role in influenza transmission, and recent articles concerning pandemic planning, some using transmission modeling, may have overestimated the effect.
Transmission Dynamics and Control of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
TLDR
It is estimated that a single infectious case of SARS will infect about three secondary cases in a population that has not yet instituted control measures, and public-health efforts to reduce transmission are expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the size of the epidemic.
Ability of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus To Form Plaques in Cell Culture Is Associated with Suppression of Alpha/Beta Interferon
TLDR
The results obtained with cell cultures demonstrate that the ability of A12-IC to form plaques is associated with the suppression of IFN-α/β expression and suggest a role for this host factor in the inability of A 12-LLV2 to spread and cause disease in susceptible animals.
Time lines of infection and disease in human influenza: a review of volunteer challenge studies.
TLDR
Prior expert opinion on the duration of viral shedding or the frequency of asymptomatic influenza infection is confirmed, prior knowledge on the dynamics of viral shed and symptoms is extended, and original results on the frequencyof respiratory symptoms or fever are provided.
...
...