Relational message interpretations of touch, conversational distance, and posture

  title={Relational message interpretations of touch, conversational distance, and posture},
  author={Judee K. Burgoon},
  journal={Journal of Nonverbal Behavior},
  • J. Burgoon
  • Published 1 December 1991
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Nonverbal Behavior
According to a social meaning model of nonverbal communication, many nonverbal behaviors have consensually recognized meanings. Two field experiments examined this presumption by investigating the relational message interpretations assigned to differing levels and types of touch, proximity, and posture. Also examined were the possible moderating effects of the communicator characteristics of gender and attractiveness and relationship characteristics of gender composition and status… 
Nonverbal cues and interpersonal judgments: Participant and observer perceptions of intimacy, dominance, composure, and formality
Nonverbal cues play a central role in person and social perception. The impact of such cues on participants’ and observers’ perceptions of relational messages was examined in an experiment in which
Types of touch in cross-sex relationships between coworkers: perceptions of relational and emotional messages, inappropriateness, and sexual harassment
This study examined observers' perceptions of nine different types of touch (including a "no touch" control condition) used in cross-sex relationships between coworkers. Results showed that face
Interpretations, Evaluations, and Consequences of Interpersonal Touch
Key elements of an expectancy violations (EV) framework are forwarded as a possible organizing framework for understanding how touch functions in interpersonal communication. Central to applying an
Reach out to one and you reach out to many: social touch affects third-party observers.
Findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers.
An Examination of Perceived Relational Messages that AccompanyInterpersonal Communication Motivations
Interpersonal scholars are concerned about what motivates people to communicate with one another, and how motivation manifests itself in dyadic interaction. Rubin, Perse, and Barbato (1988)
Attachment Style Predicts Jealous Reactions to Viewing Touch Between a Romantic Partner and Close Friend: Implications for Internet Social Communication
Using vignettes and online photos, this study explored the relationship between touch intimacy, biological sex, attachment, and the experience of jealous emotions in the context of seeing one’s
Barriers of Proxemics and Kinesics Faced by Management with an Applicant from a Different Culture during a Selection Interview.
A literature review examined the potential impact of a multicultural applicant's nonverbal behavior (specifically, proxemics and kinesics) in a selection interview. Proxemics refers to the perception
The power of touch during communication within heterosexual married dyads
The literature on sex differences in nonverbal behavior is mixed. Some studies find differences in intimate relationships whereas others do not. One reason may be that no study has examined different
Touch, status, and gender at professional meetings
Observers unobtrusively recorded instances of interpersonal touch at three large academic meetings (two of psychologists, one of philosophers). The names and affiliations of the individuals involved
Reach Out and Touch Somebody's Virtual Hand: Affectively Connected through Mediated Touch
  • A. Toet, J. V. Erp, +8 authors P. Steenbergen
  • Psychology, Computer Science
    2013 Humaine Association Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent Interaction
  • 2013
The design of a haptic computer accessory that adds the experience of touch to online conversations enables dyads to exchange the physical experience of holding hands regardless of distance and location and analyzed hand-holding behavior of parent-child dyads.


Relational Messages Associated with Nonverbal Behaviors.
Based on the assumptions that relational messages are multidimensional and that they are frequently communicated by nonverbal cues, this experiment manipulated five nonverbal cues -eye contact,
Applying a social meaning model to relational message interpretations of conversational involvement: Comparing observer and participant perspectives
This investigation explored observer interpretations of relational messages associated with nonverbal conversational involvement and cross‐validated observer interpretations with those provided by
Gender differences in the initiation and attribution of tactile intimacy
Cultural norms may restrict the demonstration of intimacy between men, such that male adults are relatively unlikely (in comparison to females) to display affection in public by hugging or putting
A naturalistic study of the meanings of touch
The present study employed an adapted version of the contextual analysis method developed by Scheflen and others to examine the meanings‐in‐context of touches reported by persons from their daily
The nonverbal basis of attraction: flirtation, courtship, and seduction.
This report explores several conspicuous nonlinguistic cues that appear to be used widely in contexts of flirtation, courtship, and seduction.
Nonverbal Expectancies and the Evaluative Consequences of Violations
This report reviews the construct of expectancy and its relevance to understanding communication phenomena. Given the shortage of empirically based knowledge about what constitute expected and
Perceptions of cross-sex and same-sex nonreciprocal touch: It is better to give than to receive
Observers' perceptions of actors engaged in cross-sex and same-sex nonreciprocal touch vs. no-touch interactions were assessed. Touchers were rated significantly higher than recipients on dimensions
Effects of gaze, touch, and use of name on evaluation of “Engaged” couples☆
Abstract Videotapes were made of actors playing the role of engaged couples in an ostensible interview with a research psychologist. Couples either gazed at each other or did not gaze, used each
Communicative effects of gaze behavior: a test of two contrasting explanations
This experiment was undertaken to test two contrasting explanations of the effects of eye gaze on social perceptions and outcomes. A social meaning model holds that differing levels of gaze have such
Nonverbal expectancy violations and conversational involvement
A central feature of nonverbal expectancy violations theory is that unexpected behaviors trigger a cognitive-affective appraisal of such behavior, leading to a valencing of the behavior(s) as