Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment.

  title={Relational aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment.},
  author={Nicki R. Crick and Jennifer K Grotpeter},
  journal={Child development},
  volume={66 3},
Prior studies of childhood aggression have demonstrated that, as a group, boys are more aggressive than girls. We hypothesized that this finding reflects a lack of research on forms of aggression that are relevant to young females rather than an actual gender difference in levels of overall aggressiveness. In the present study, a form of aggression hypothesized to be typical of girls, relational aggression, was assessed with a peer nomination instrument for a sample of 491 third-through sixth… 

Tables from this paper

The Relationship among Types of Aggression, Pro-Social Behavior, Sex, and Perceived Emotional Distress
This study was designed to examine forms of aggression and their relationship to sex, and emotional distress. Participants in the study were fourth grade boys and girls (n=91) from a small, rural
A Longitudinal Study of Relational Aggression, Physical Aggression, and Children's Social–Psychological Adjustment
It was revealed that the strongest predictor of future social–psychological adjustment problems and increases in these problems from third to fourth was the combination of relational and physical aggression.
Relational aggression and social-psychological adjustment in a college sample.
Regression analyses showed that relational aggression provided unique information, after controlling for age and gender, about peer rejection, prosocial behavior, antisocial personality features, and borderline personality features.
The role of overt aggression, relational aggression, and prosocial behavior in the prediction of children's future social adjustment.
Assessment of children's relational aggression, overt aggression, prosocial behavior, and social adjustment showed that individual differences in relational aggression were relatively stable over time and relational aggression contributed uniquely to the prediction of future social maladjustment.
Relational Aggression in an Australian Sample: Gender and Age Differences
Relational aggression is a form of aggression in which individuals use relationships as a source of control and a means by which to inflict harm on others. The present research investigated this form
U.S. and Indonesian Children's Descriptions of Relational Aggression: Gender, Development and Cultural Comparisons
Previous studies of aggression in childhood have found that boys, as a group, are more aggressive than girls. The majority of these studies, however, focus only on physical aggression. Recently
Children's treatment by peers: Victims of relational and overt aggression
Abstract Past research on peer victimization has focused on maltreatment through overtly aggressive behaviors. Although a relational form of aggression has been identified in recent research, studies
Relations Among Gender-Typical and Gender-Atypical Uses of Aggression, Popularity, and Depression
The purpose of this study was to investigate how types of bullying engaged in by high school students (relational, physical, or verbal aggression) vary with gender and how they may be related to a
Relational and Overt Aggression in Childhood and Adolescence: Clarifying Mean-Level Gender Differences and Associations with Peer Acceptance.
Findings demonstrate that when gender differences in relational aggression are assessed with peer nominations, gender differences favoring girls are more likely: in adolescence than childhood and when statistical overlap with overt aggression is controlled.


Is Indirect Aggression Typical of Females? Gender Differences in Aggressiveness in 11- to 12-Year-Old Children
Gender differences regarding aggressive behaviour were investigated in 167 school children, 11 to 12 years of age, through peer-rating techniques supported by self-ratings and interviews. The social
Cognitive social learning mediators of aggression.
It was concluded that children'sknowledge of their capabilities and children's knowledge of the consequences of their actions are factors that need to be taken into account by cognitive models of aggression.
Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children's peer groups.
  • K. Dodge, J. Coie
  • Psychology
    Journal of personality and social psychology
  • 1987
Three studies supported the hypothesis that attributional biases and deficits are related to reactive aggression but not to proactive aggression, which was hypothesized to occur as a function of hostile attributional bias and intention-cue detection deficits.
Dimensions and types of social status: A cross-age perspective.
Children's sociometric status was conceptualized in terms of independent dimensions of social preference and social impact. In Experiment 1, peer perceptual correlates of these dimensions were
Social cognitive biases and deficits in aggressive boys.
It was found that the biased attributions of aggressive boys may have some basis in their experience, in that they were frequently the targets of peers' aggressive behavior, and led to the formation of a social-information-processing model of aggressive behavior.
Social cognition and children's aggressive behavior.
The hypothesis that aggressive children respond to ambiguous-intention-negative-consequence situations with aggression because they infer a hostile intention was supported by a follow-up study using hypothetical episodes as stimuli and reflects the increased significance of the social reputation of the aggressive child with increasing age.
A Behavioral Analysis of Emerging Social Status in Boys' Groups.
COIE, JOHN D., and KUPERSMIDT, JANIS B. A Behavioral Analysis of Emerging Social Status in Boys' Groups. CHILD DEVELOPMENT, 1983, 54, 1400-1416. 4 fourth-grade boys, each different social status
Gender and Helping Behavior. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Social Psychological Literature
According to our social-role theory of gender and helping, the male gender role fosters helping that is heroic and chivalrous, whereas the female gender role fosters helping that is nurturant and
Children's perceptions of their peer experiences: Attributions, loneliness, social anxiety, and social avoidance.
In this study, 338 3rd and 5th graders completed a sociometric questionnaire and 3 instruments designed to assess their feelings of loneliness, social anxiety, social avoidance, and their
Peer relations and later personal adjustment: are low-accepted children at risk?
There is general support for the hypothesis that children with poor peer adjustment are at risk for later life difficulties, and support is clearest for the outcomes of dropping out and criminality.