BACKGROUND/AIMS Relation between cancer of the exocrine part of the pancreas and chronic pancreatitis has not been clearly defined and the problem of carcinogens based on long-lasting chronic pancreatitis is still a matter of discussion. METHODOLOGY The aim of the study was analysis of postoperative material of patients who in the years 1999-2003 underwent either drainage procedures (n=49) in the course of chronic pancreatitis or resectional procedures (n=36) for chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. RESULTS In the group of patients with drainage procedures pancreatic cancer was histologically detected in postoperative material (specimens collected from the wall of pancreatic pseudocyst or dilated main pancreatic duct) in 3 patients (6.1%). In the group of patients with long-lasting chronic pancreatitis who underwent a resectional procedure pancreatic cancer was postoperatively detected in 4 cases (30.7%). CONCLUSIONS Analysis of presented material confirms that long-lasting chronic pancreatitis predisposes to cancer of the exocrine part of the pancreas. This indicates that risk of pancreatic cancer should be taken into consideration in each patient with long lasting chronic pancreatitis.