Reintroduction of quazepam: an update on comparative hypnotic and adverse effects.

  title={Reintroduction of quazepam: an update on comparative hypnotic and adverse effects.},
  author={Nader H. Moniri},
  journal={International Clinical Psychopharmacology},
  • N. Moniri
  • Published 3 July 2019
  • Psychology, Biology, Medicine
  • International Clinical Psychopharmacology
Insomnia is a prevalent disorder that affects over one-third of the U.S. population to varying degrees and is highly disruptive towards quality of life. Pharmacological treatments for insomnia include benzodiazepines (BZs) and the non-BZ 'Z-drugs' (zolpidem, zaleplon, eszopiclone, zopiclone), which are amongst the most widely prescribed medications. Yet, these agents can produce adverse effects such as tolerance to the hypnotic effect, rebound insomnia, next-day residual drowsiness, as well as… 
2 Citations


Zolpidem. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic potential.
While zolpidem aids sedation, and may reduce memory or psychomotor function within the first 2 hours after administration of single oral doses, its use as a surgical premedicant remains to be established.
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The 0.25 mg dose of triazolam, which is being prescribed increasingly, has a profile of side effects that is similar to that of the 0.5 mg dose, and is associated with sleep and mood disturbances whereas quazepam exerted carryover effectiveness.
The acute cognitive effects of zopiclone, zolpidem, zaleplon, and eszopiclone: A systematic review and meta-analysis
It is clear that the use of a single dose of the z-drugs in healthy adults as measured in the morning following the exposure does produce a specific rather than a generalized negative effect on cognitive function.
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In conclusion, quazepam seems to have a good hypnotic effect without inducing rebound effects, while triazolam turned out to be just a hypnoinducent drug with higher risks of rebound effects after withdrawal.
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Performance scores were already showing recovery from peak impairment 2 h post-drug ingestion, although quazepam's potent N-desalkylflurazepAM metabolite has been found to maintain a maximum plateau level from 2 to 24 h.
A multicenter, placebo-controlled study evaluating zolpidem in the treatment of chronic insomnia.
10 mg of zolpidem was found to be safe and effective for the long-term treatment of chronic insomnia, demonstrating hypnotic efficacy without affecting sleep stages or producing tolerance effects, rebound effects, or detrimental effects on psychomotor performance.
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With quazepam, rebound insomnia was not observed at any time during the seven‐day withdrawal period, and both drugs increased the total sleep time during their administration and improved the subjective quality of sleep.
Quazepam and temazepam: Effects of short‐ and intermediate‐term use and withdrawal
Although temazepam was effective for maintaining sleep with short‐term use, there was rapid development of tolerance for this effect with intermediate‐ term use, and quazEPam had carryover effectiveness.
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The data suggest that the optimal dose of quazepam is 15 mg, and some loss of effectiveness was noted during long‐term use of both doses of quzepam and, to a lesser extent, of flurazepams.
Respiratory Effects of Quazepam and Pentobarbital
This study compared the respiratory effects of quazepam 15 and 30 mg to those of pentobarbital 50 and 150 mg and to placebo and found the drug continued to exert hypnotic effects without serious adverse effects.