Reinterpretation of the Cambrian ‘Bryozoan' Pywackia as an Octocoral

  title={Reinterpretation of the Cambrian ‘Bryozoan' Pywackia as an Octocoral},
  author={Paul D. Taylor and Bj{\"o}rn Berning and Mark A. Wilson},
  booktitle={Journal of Paleontology},
Abstract Pywackia baileyi Landing in Landing et al., 2010, from the upper Cambrian Yudachica Member of Oaxaca State, southern Mexico, consists of small, phosphatic, proximally tapering cylindrical rods covered by shallow polygonal calices. The bryozoan-like morphology of this fossil prompted its interpretation as the first bryozoan known from the Cambrian. However, restudy of some of the original material, employing scanning electron microscopy for the first time, questions the assignment of… 

Distinguishing Earth's oldest known bryozoan (Pywackia, late Cambrian) from pennatulacean octocorals (Mesozoic—Recent)

Abstract. Bryozoans and all biomineralized metazoan phyla extend back into the Cambrian. Pywackia Landing, 2010 is confirmed as a secondarily phosphatized, late Cambrian stenolaemate bryozoan with

The oldest mineralized bryozoan? A possible palaeostomate in the lower Cambrian of Nevada, USA

All skeletal marine invertebrate phyla appeared during the Cambrian explosion, except for Bryozoa with mineralized skeletons, which first appear in the Early Ordovician. However, the skeletal

Alcyonacea awakens: Palaeobiology and palaeoecology of Palaeozoic octocorals known from their sclerites

Most Alcyonacea (subclass Octocorallia) have skeletons made up of small calcareous pieces called sclerites that are difficult to both preserve and recognize, which explains the scarce and irregular

Bryozoans from the Early Ordovician Fenhsiang Formation (Tremadocian) of South China and the early diversification of the phylum

Although phosphatized bryozoans have been described recently from the early Cambrian, the first unequivocal bryozoan fossils with hard skeletons are known from the Ordovician. Recent discoveries of

Reconstructing a Carboniferous inferred coral–alcyonarian association using a biomineralogical approach

Carboniferous material from Morocco and Spain has been studied using a biomineralogical approach and the results imply that Syringoalcyon is an association between the tabulate coral Syringopora and an epibiont and suggest that the epibont was an alcyonarian that was attached to the syringoporoid.

Unusual lophophore innervation in ctenostome Flustrellidra hispida (Bryozoa).

The presence of the outer nerve ring participating in the innervation of tentacles makes the F. hispida lophophore nervous system particularly similar to the lophophile nervous system of phoronids, which allows to suggest that it may reflect the ancestral state for all bryozoans.

Exceptional bryozoan assemblage of a microbial-dominated reef from the early Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden

The bryozoan-microbial crusts (bryoliths) show certain sequences by microbes, encrusting bryozoans and tabulate corals, apparently due to strong competition for substrate.

The oldest bryozoans of Baltoscandia from the lowermost Floian (Ordovician) of north-western Russia: two new rare, small and simple species of Revalotrypidae

We describe two new species of esthonioporate bryozoans, Revalotrypa inopinata sp. nov. and R. yugaensis sp. nov., from the Lower Ordovician, south-east of Lake Ladoga, north-western Russia. The

The Biology and Evolution of Calcite and Aragonite Mineralization in Octocorallia

It is argued that studying aragonite-forming could provide insight on octocoral, and more generally anthozoan, biomineralization, and it is essential to comprehensively study how skeletons form and evolved within this ecologically important group of marine animals.

Chapter 12 A review of the Early Palaeozoic biogeography of bryozoans

Abstract The palaeogeographical distributions of Early Palaeozoic bryozoan faunas are reviewed. Previous studies are examined and new databases have been assembled of the stratigraphical and



470-Million-year-old black corals from China

Phosphatic remains of antipatharian coralla, previously unknown in the fossil record, occur abundantly in the early Ordovician Fenxiang Formation in the Hubei Province, southern China, and supports predictions on the timing of anthozoan phylogeny derived from the molecular phylogenetic evidence.

Cambrian origin of all skeletalized metazoan phyla—Discovery of Earth's oldest bryozoans (Upper Cambrian, southern Mexico)

Exquisite Pywackia baileyi Landing n. gen. and sp. specimens from the lower Tinu Formation, southern Mexico, extend the bryozoan record into the Upper Cambrian. They are ∼8 m.y. older than the

Additional Fossils from the Cambrian Rocks of Comley, Shropshire

  • E. S. Cobbold
  • Geology
    Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London
  • 1931
During the last 20 years a good many additions have been made to my collection from the Cambrian rocks of Comley. Some of these specimens indicate species new to the locality; others throw additional

Terminal Cambrian and lowest Ordovician succession of Mexican West Gondwana: biotas and sequence stratigraphy of the Tiñu Formation

Abstract The Tiñu Formation of Oaxaca State is the only fossiliferous lower Palaeozoic unit between the Laurentian platform in northwest Mexico and Gondwanan successions in Andean South America. The

Sea Pens (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) from the Late Cretaceous of Northern Germany

Abstract The Late Cretaceous white chalk of the Isle of Rügen, northeastern Germany, yields a highly diverse marine floral and faunal assemblage with more than 1,400 described species, including

Archaeotrypa Fritz, 1947 (Cambrian, Problematica) reinterpreted

Detailed petrographic analysis of the type specimens of Cambrian Archaeotrypa prima and A. secunda shows that A. prima differs in important features from the original description, and may be modeled as a cystoporate bryozoan or alternatively as an echinoderm.

Living genera of sea pens (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea): illustrated key and synopses

An illustrated dichotomous key and synopses of the 32 genera of living pennatulacean octocorals are presented, which incorporate new morphological and distributional data from the examination of recently collected material and a revised classification and phylogenetic considerations are presented.

The Global Diversity of Sea Pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea)

The pennatulacean octocorals, a group of cnidarians commonly referred to as sea pens or sea feathers, is treats new discoveries and taxa new to science, and provides greater resolution in geographic and bathymetric distributions data than was previously known.

The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

The Global Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) was undoubtedly one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of the marine biosphere. A continuous increase in ichnodiversity