Reinterpretation of the Cambrian ‘Bryozoan' Pywackia as an Octocoral

  title={Reinterpretation of the Cambrian ‘Bryozoan' Pywackia as an Octocoral},
  author={Paul D. Taylor and Bj{\"o}rn Berning and Mark A. Wilson},
  booktitle={Journal of Paleontology},
Abstract Pywackia baileyi Landing in Landing et al., 2010, from the upper Cambrian Yudachica Member of Oaxaca State, southern Mexico, consists of small, phosphatic, proximally tapering cylindrical rods covered by shallow polygonal calices. The bryozoan-like morphology of this fossil prompted its interpretation as the first bryozoan known from the Cambrian. However, restudy of some of the original material, employing scanning electron microscopy for the first time, questions the assignment of… Expand
Distinguishing Earth's oldest known bryozoan (Pywackia, late Cambrian) from pennatulacean octocorals (Mesozoic—Recent)
Abstract. Bryozoans and all biomineralized metazoan phyla extend back into the Cambrian. Pywackia Landing, 2010 is confirmed as a secondarily phosphatized, late Cambrian stenolaemate bryozoan withExpand
Early development and coloniality in Oligophylloides from the Devonian of Morocco—Are Heterocorallia Palaeozoic octocorals?
It is demonstrated that Oligophylloides shows a unique colony development not known in any group of anthozoans possessing a septate-like architecture and suggested that the previously postulated homology between true septa in hexa- and rugose corals on one hand, and Oligopterlloides on the other, must be rejected. Expand
Reconstructing a Carboniferous inferred coral-alcyonarian association using a biomineralogical approach.
Carboniferous material from Morocco and Spain has been studied using a biomineralogical approach and the results imply that Syringoalcyon is an association between the tabulate coral Syringopora and an epibiont and suggest that the epibont was an alcyonarian that was attached to the syringoporoid. Expand
Exceptional bryozoan assemblage of a microbial-dominated reef from the early Wenlock of Gotland, Sweden
The bryozoan-microbial crusts (bryoliths) show certain sequences by microbes, encrusting bryozoans and tabulate corals, apparently due to strong competition for substrate. Expand
The oldest bryozoans of Baltoscandia from the lowermost Floian (Ordovician) of north-western Russia: two new rare, small and simple species of Revalotrypidae
We describe two new species of esthonioporate bryozoans, Revalotrypa inopinata sp. nov. and R. yugaensis sp. nov., from the Lower Ordovician, south-east of Lake Ladoga, north-western Russia. TheExpand
The Biology and Evolution of Calcite and Aragonite Mineralization in Octocorallia
Octocorallia (class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria) is a group of calcifying corals displaying a wide diversity of mineral skeletons. This includes skeletal structures composed of different calciumExpand
Chapter 12 A review of the Early Palaeozoic biogeography of bryozoans
Abstract The palaeogeographical distributions of Early Palaeozoic bryozoan faunas are reviewed. Previous studies are examined and new databases have been assembled of the stratigraphical andExpand
Early evolution of colonial animals (Ediacaran Evolutionary Radiation–Cambrian Evolutionary Radiation–Great Ordovician Biodiversification Interval)
Re-evaluation of eumetazoan modular coloniality gives a new perspective to Ediacaran–Ordovician animal diversification as well as identifying the root for the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Interval and diverse later Phanerozoic communities. Expand
Phylogeny and diversification of bryozoans
A remarkable range of morphological structures in the form of highly modified zooidal polymorphs, or non-zooidal or intrazooidal modular elements, is postulated to have evolved repeatedly in this group; many of these structures have been linked to micropredator protection and can be interpreted as key traits linked to the diversification of cheilostomes. Expand
The middle–late Cambrian reef transition and related geological events: A review and new view
Abstract The reefs of the middle–late Cambrian (Cambrian Epoch 3–Furongian) have long been simply considered as microbialites that flourished in the aftermath of the archaeocyath extinction. ThoroughExpand


470-Million-year-old black corals from China
Phosphatic remains of antipatharian coralla, previously unknown in the fossil record, occur abundantly in the early Ordovician Fenxiang Formation in the Hubei Province, southern China, and supports predictions on the timing of anthozoan phylogeny derived from the molecular phylogenetic evidence. Expand
Cambrian origin of all skeletalized metazoan phyla—Discovery of Earth's oldest bryozoans (Upper Cambrian, southern Mexico)
Exquisite Pywackia baileyi Landing n. gen. and sp. specimens from the lower Tinu Formation, southern Mexico, extend the bryozoan record into the Upper Cambrian. They are ∼8 m.y. older than theExpand
Additional Fossils from the Cambrian Rocks of Comley, Shropshire
  • E. S. Cobbold
  • Geology
  • Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London
  • 1931
During the last 20 years a good many additions have been made to my collection from the Cambrian rocks of Comley. Some of these specimens indicate species new to the locality; others throw additionalExpand
Terminal Cambrian and lowest Ordovician succession of Mexican West Gondwana: biotas and sequence stratigraphy of the Tiñu Formation
Abstract The Tiñu Formation of Oaxaca State is the only fossiliferous lower Palaeozoic unit between the Laurentian platform in northwest Mexico and Gondwanan successions in Andean South America. TheExpand
Sea Pens (Octocorallia: Pennatulacea) from the Late Cretaceous of Northern Germany
Abstract The Late Cretaceous white chalk of the Isle of Rügen, northeastern Germany, yields a highly diverse marine floral and faunal assemblage with more than 1,400 described species, includingExpand
Archaeotrypa Fritz, 1947 (Cambrian, Problematica) reinterpreted
Detailed petrographic analysis of the type specimens of Cambrian Archaeotrypa prima and A. secunda shows that A. prima differs in important features from the original description. The tubes that makeExpand
Living genera of sea pens (Coelenterata: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea): illustrated key and synopses
An illustrated dichotomous key and synopses of the 32 genera of living pennatulacean octocorals are presented, which incorporate new morphological and distributional data from the examination of recently collected material and a revised classification and phylogenetic considerations are presented. Expand
The Global Diversity of Sea Pens (Cnidaria: Octocorallia: Pennatulacea)
The pennatulacean octocorals, a group of cnidarians commonly referred to as sea pens or sea feathers, is treats new discoveries and taxa new to science, and provides greater resolution in geographic and bathymetric distributions data than was previously known. Expand
A molecular phylogenetic analysis of the Octocorallia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) based on mitochondrial protein-coding sequences.
The failure of these mitochondrial genes as well as previous 18S rDNA studies to resolve many of the deeper nodes within the tree suggest that octocorals underwent a rapid radiation and that large amounts of sequence data will be required in order to resolve the basal relationships within the clade. Expand
The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event
The Global Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) was undoubtedly one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of the marine biosphere. A continuous increase in ichnodiversityExpand