Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate

@article{Smit2005ReinforcingEO,
  title={Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate},
  author={Hendrik Jan Smit and Rachel J. Blackburn},
  journal={Psychopharmacology},
  year={2005},
  volume={181},
  pages={101-106}
}
RationaleAlthough in a previous study we showed that caffeine and theobromine were the main psychopharmacologically active constituents in a 50-g bar of chocolate, mere activity does not guarantee a role in our liking for the food.ObjectivesOur aim was to see if liking for a drink repeatedly paired with these amounts of caffeine and theobromine would increase compared to a placebo-paired drink.MethodsParticipants (n=64) consumed a ‘novel’ drink + treatment capsule on six non-consecutive… Expand
Psychopharmacology of theobromine in healthy volunteers
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It is concluded that theobromine at normal intake ranges may contribute to the positive effects of chocolate, but at higher intakes, effects become negative. Expand
Differential contributions of theobromine and caffeine on mood, psychomotor performance and blood pressure
TLDR
It was tentatively concluded that caffeine may have more CNS-mediated effects on alertness, while theobromine may be acting primarily via peripheral physiological changes on mood and blood pressure. Expand
The relevance of theobromine for the beneficial effects of cocoa consumption
TLDR
Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake, and deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa. Expand
Theobromine and the pharmacology of cocoa.
  • H. J. Smit
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Handbook of experimental pharmacology
  • 2011
TLDR
Most other substances are unlikely to exude a psychopharmacological effect owing to extremely low concentrations or the inability to reach the blood-brain barrier, whilst chocolate craving and addiction need to be explained by means of a culturally determined ambivalence towards chocolate. Expand
More than just caffeine: psychopharmacology of methylxanthine interactions with plant-derived phytochemicals
TLDR
More research is needed to identify optimal combinations and ratios of caffeine and phytochemicals for enhancement of cognitive performance, and specific sets of constituent compounds such as polyphenols, theobromine and L‐theanine appear to enhance mood and cognition effects of caffeine. Expand
Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood.
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The mood-elevating properties of chocolate can be enhanced with intention, and a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment investigated whether chocolate exposed to "good intentions" would enhance mood more than unexposed chocolate. Expand
Chocolate: Psychopharmacological Aspects, Mood, and Addiction
Chocolate has specific orosensory qualities that provide strong hedonic effects, which in turn relate to changes in the opioidergic and dopaminergic systems. This may induce soothing effects, whichExpand
Exploring cocoa properties: is theobromine a cognitive modulator?
TLDR
The conceivable action of theobromine alone and associated with caffeine or other cocoa constituents on cognitive modulation is yet underexplored and future studies are needed to shed light on this promising molecule. Expand
Caffeine, mood and cognition.
: Caffeine is widely consumed and has widespread physiological effects. We review evidence that the acute alerting and associated psychomotor performance effects of caffeine experienced by frequentExpand
Chocolate: food for moods.
TLDR
The association between chocolate consumption and emotions warrants further multi-prong investigations to substantiate chocolate's mood alterating propensity. Expand
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