Reinforcement Can Overcome Gene Flow during Speciation in Drosophila

@article{Matute2010ReinforcementCO,
  title={Reinforcement Can Overcome Gene Flow during Speciation in Drosophila},
  author={Daniel R. Matute},
  journal={Current Biology},
  year={2010},
  volume={20},
  pages={2229-2233}
}
  • D. R. Matute
  • Published 21 December 2010
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Current Biology
Reinforcement, the strengthening of prezygotic reproductive isolation by natural selection in response to maladaptive hybridization [1-3], is one of the few processes in which natural selection directly favors the evolution of species as discrete groups (e.g., [4-7]). The evolution of reproductive barriers via reinforcement is expected to evolve in regions where the ranges of two species overlap and hybridize as an evolutionary solution to avoiding the costs of maladaptive hybridization [2,3,8… 
Reinforcement’s incidental effects on reproductive isolation between conspecifics
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It is suggested that CER is likely if (1) the rate of gene flow between conspecific populations is low; (2) divergent selection acts on phenotypes involved in reinforcement between sympatric and allopatric populations; and (3) the genetic response to reinforcement differs among conspespecific populations subject to parallel reinforcing selection.
Multifaceted, Cross-Generational Costs of Hybridization in Sibling Drosophila species
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This work estimated multiple fitness components for F1 hybrids and backcross progeny and used these to compare the relative fitness of parental species and their hybrids across two generations to reveal intense postzygotic selection against hybridization and thus, an enhanced role for reinforcement in the evolution of populations and diversification of species.
Pervasive reinforcement and the role of sexual selection in biological speciation.
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It is shown that in birds, divergence in song and plumage in allopatry corresponds poorly with whether species mate assortatively in hybrid zones and argued that many other factors besides trait divergence affect propensity to hybridize, including rarity of conspecific mates and choice based on territory rather than male traits.
Conflict over fertilization underlies the transient evolution of reinforcement
TLDR
A population genetic model of interspecific conflict over reinforcement, inspired by ‘gametophytic factors’, is developed, which demonstrates that this conflict results in the transient evolution of reinforcement – after female preference for a conspecific gamete trait rises to high frequency, male traits adaptively introgress into the other population.
Coevolution of male and female reproductive traits drive cascading reinforcement in Drosophila yakuba
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The results suggest that the correlated evolution of male and female reproductive traits in sympatric D. yakuba have associated costs (i.e., reduced male fertility) that prevent the alleles responsible for enhanced isolation from spreading outside the hybrid zone.
DEGREE OF SYMPATRY AFFECTS REINFORCEMENT IN DROSOPHILA
  • P. Nosil
  • Biology, Medicine
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
  • 2013
TLDR
The results provide novel evidence that the outcome of reinforcement can depend on the strength and frequency of selection against hybridization, and another (unconsidered) factor, namely the quantitative degree of sympatry between species, also predictably affects reinforcement.
Genomic evidence of gene flow during reinforcement in Texas Phlox
TLDR
It is suggested strong selection can explain how reinforcement successfully evolved in this system despite gene flow in sympatry, which could explain why reinforcement caused divergence in only one of the sympatric species.
The rate of evolution of postmating-prezygotic reproductive isolation in Drosophila
TLDR
The results indicate that PMPZ isolation evolves faster than hybrid inviability but slower than premating isolation, which opens up a large repertoire of tools that will enable researchers to manipulate hybrids and explore the genetic basis of interspecific differentiation, reproductive isolation, and speciation.
Fine‐scale geographic patterns of gene flow and reproductive character displacement in Drosophila subquinaria and Drosophila recens
TLDR
Reinforcement within D. subquinaria is effective at maintaining species boundaries, but even when reinforcing selection is strong it may not always result in a pattern of strong reproductive character displacement due to variation in the frequency of hybridization and gene flow from neighbouring populations.
Comparative studies on speciation: 30 years since Coyne and Orr
TLDR
This work revisits the five questions addressed by Coyne and Orr, identifying results that remain well supported and others that seem less robust with new data, and considers the future of speciation research, with emphasis on areas where novel methods and data motivate potential progress.
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These findings demonstrate the joint effects of reinforcement, ecological adaptation and gene flow on progress towards speciation in the wild in Timema cristinae walking-stick insects.
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One of the most imiportant problems in the study of speciation has been that of the origin of reproductive isolating mechanisms, for it is by the building up of intrinsic barriers which prevent gene
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It is suggested that an increase in the level of female mating discrimination can yield reinforcement without further divergence of either male characters or female preferences, and selection on mating discrimination is a viable mechanism for reinforcement and may allow speciation under less stringent conditions than selection on female preference.
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Evolution; international journal of organic evolution
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TLDR
Computer simulations and a multilocus genetic model are used to reevaluate the theory of reinforcement and consider the evolution of female preferences for a male secondary sexual trait and the likelihood of extinction is lowered.
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It appears that there are multiple ways by which Wolbachia endosymbionts may directly and indirectly contribute to reproductive isolation and speciation.
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TLDR
In populations where two species coexist, it is shown that female choice selects for a divergence in male plumage colour and that the resulting character displacement reduces the frequency of hybridization.
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TLDR
Despite the fact that these species meet many of the conditions required for the evolution of reinforcement (the elevation of sexual isolation by natural selection to avoid maladaptive interspecific hybridization), there is no evidence that sexual isolation between the species is highest in the zone of overlap.
SEXUAL ISOLATION BETWEEN TWO SIBLING SPECIES WITH OVERLAPPING RANGES: DROSOPHILA SANTOMEA AND DROSOPHILA YAKUBA
Abstract.— .Drosophila yakuba is widespread in Africa, whereas D. santomea, its newly discovered sister species, is endemic to the volcanic island of São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. Drosophila
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TLDR
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