Regulatory T cells in experimental autoimmune disease

  title={Regulatory T cells in experimental autoimmune disease},
  author={Elisabeth Suri‐Payer and Benedikt Fritzsching},
  journal={Springer Seminars in Immunopathology},
During the past 10 years, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) have been extensively studied for their function in autoimmune disease. This review summarizes the evidence for a role of Treg in suppression of innate and adaptive immune responses in experimental models of autoimmunity including arthritis, colitis, diabetes, autoimmune encephalomyelitis, lupus, gastritis, oophoritis, prostatitis, and thyroiditis. Antigen-specific activation of Treg, but antigen-independent suppressive… 
Molecular Mechanisms of Treg-Mediated T Cell Suppression
Molecular mechanisms of suppression of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ regulatory T cells and rapid suppression of T cell receptor-induced calcium (Ca2+), NFAT, and NF-κB signaling in Tcons by Tregs are summarized.
Requirement for Diverse TCR Specificities Determines Regulatory T Cell Activity in a Mouse Model of Autoimmune Arthritis
It is indicated that the availability of Tregs with diverse TCR specificities can be crucial to their activity in autoimmune arthritis.
Number and function of CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells in patients suffering from multiple sclerosis
It is proved that the isolated Treg has phenotypical and functional characteristics and a reduction or loss of suppressive activity of Treg in the patients suffering from multiple sclerosis compared with healthy individuals.
Factors regulating apoptosis and homeostasis of CD4+ CD25(high) FOXP3+ regulatory T cells are new therapeutic targets.
  • Xiaofeng Yang
  • Biology
    Frontiers in bioscience : a journal and virtual library
  • 2008
It is reported that removal of Tregs via a Bax-dependent apoptotic pathway significantly enhances anti-self antigen immune responses, which demonstrated for the first time the proof of principle that apoptosis of T Regs is a new therapeutic target.
Enhancing anti-tumor immunity to MHC class I-deficient tumors: role of regulatory T cells and type I IFN
A role for Treg is supported in blunting the immune response to a MHC class I-deficient tumor target, by interfering with leukocyte accumulation at the tumor site, as well as identifying macrophages as novel potential targets for T Reg mediated immune suppression in cancer.
Natural regulatory T cells: mechanisms of suppression.
Low number of regulatory T cells in skin lesions of patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
Data suggest that an organ-specific abnormality of T Reg in the skin underscores the importance of analyzing Treg in the affected tissue and might give insight into the pathogenic mechanisms of CLE.
Rapid Suppression of Cytokine Transcription in Human CD4+CD25− T Cells by CD4+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells: Independence of IL-2 Consumption, TGF-β, and Various Inhibitors of TCR Signaling1
The identification of a fast inhibitory mechanism in Tcon induced by Treg constitutes an important step for future efforts to unravel the entire elusive suppressive mechanism.
Regulatory T cells control macrophage accumulation and activation in lymphoma
It is demonstrated that Treg depletion in mice led to tumor rejection that was dependent on T cells, NK cells and IFN‐γ, and high numbers of macrophage infiltrating RMA‐S tumors in the absence of Treg correlated with tumor rejection suggesting that macrophages are additional targets for Treg‐mediated immune suppression in cancer.
Regulatory T cells and tolerance induction
M Monitoring of Treg numbers could be instrumental in identifying patients with risk of graft failure and might help minimizing immunosuppressive therapy in transplant recipients, and molecular mechanisms of TReg proliferation and Treg elimination are currently explored for their clinical usability as therapeutical targets.


Continuous control of autoimmune disease by antigen-dependent polyclonal CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in the regional lymph node
By depriving d3tx recipients of ovarian antigens, this study unmasked the supremacy of ovarian antigen-exposed female over male T regs in AOD suppression; this occurs in a location where potent antigen-specific T Regs accumulate and continuously negate pathogenic T cell response.
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells limit the risk of autoimmune disease arising from T cell receptor crossreactivity.
The importance of Treg in raising the threshold of triggering of autoreactive T cell responses, thus limiting the risk of autoimmune disease due to molecular mimicry, is demonstrated.
Expansion of Functional Endogenous Antigen-Specific CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells from Nonobese Diabetic Mice1
A direct demonstration of the presence of autoantigen-specific Treg in the natural setting that can be applied as therapeutics for organ-specific autoimmunity.
In Vitro–expanded Antigen-specific Regulatory T Cells Suppress Autoimmune Diabetes
Small numbers of antigen-specific Tregs from autoimmune-prone nonobese diabetic mice can reverse diabetes after disease onset, suggesting a novel approach to cellular immunotherapy for autoimmunity.
Role of LAG-3 in regulatory T cells.
Homeostatic maintenance of natural Foxp3 + CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells by interleukin (IL)-2 and induction of autoimmune disease by IL-2 neutralization
Interleukin (IL)-2 plays a crucial role in the maintenance of natural immunologic self-tolerance. Neutralization of circulating IL-2 by anti–IL-2 monoclonal antibody for a limited period elicits
CD4+CD25+ T Cells Prevent the Development of Organ-Specific Autoimmune Disease by Inhibiting the Differentiation of Autoreactive Effector T Cells
The primary effect of nTreg appeared to be inhibition of differentiation of autoantigen-specific T cells to Th1 effector cells, as reflected by a decrease in Ag-stimulated IFN-γ production and a reduction in T-bet expression.
Where CD4+CD25+ T reg cells impinge on autoimmune diabetes
T reg cells primarily impinge on autoimmune diabetes by reining in destructive T cells inside the islets, more than during the initial activation in the draining lymph nodes.
CD4+CD25+ TR Cells Suppress Innate Immune Pathology Through Cytokine-dependent Mechanisms
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T (TR) cells do not only suppress adaptive T cell responses, but are also able to control pathology mediated by innate immune mechanisms.
Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen 4 Plays an Essential Role in the Function of Cd25+Cd4+ Regulatory Cells That Control Intestinal Inflammation
It is reported that the Treg cells that control intestinal inflammation express the same phenotype (CD25+CD45RBlowCD4+) as those that control autoimmunity, suggesting that Treg cell function contributes to the immune suppression characteristic of CTLA-4 signaling.