Characterization of the 5′-flanking region of the mouse asparagine-linked glycosylation 12 homolog gene
The ETS (E26 Transformation-specific Sequence) factors are comprised of a family of transcription factors that share a highly conserved DNA binding domain. Although originally described for their role as protooncogenes in the development of several types of human cancer, they have subsequently been shown to regulate a wide variety of biological processes including cellular growth and differentiation under normal and pathological conditions. As transcription factors, they can either function as activators or repressors of gene expression. Several ETS family members are expressed in cells of vascular origin, including endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, where they regulate the expression of a number of vascular-specific genes. In the past few years, emerging evidence supports a novel role for selected ETS family members in the regulation of vascular inflammation and remodeling. ETS factor expression can be induced by proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and vasoactive peptides. Examples of some of the target genes regulated by ETS factors include adhesion molecules, chemokines, and matrix metalloproteinases. Targeted disruption of selected ETS family members such as Ets-1 in mice is associated with marked reductions in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and vascular remodeling in response to systemic administration of the vasoactive peptide angiotensin II. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of recent advances that have been made in defining a role for selected members of the ETS transcription factor family in the regulation of vascular-specific gene expression, vascular inflammation, and remodeling.