Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by cytokines: actions and mechanisms of action.

@article{Turnbull1999RegulationOT,
  title={Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by cytokines: actions and mechanisms of action.},
  author={Andrew V. Turnbull and Catherine Laure Rivier},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  year={1999},
  volume={79 1},
  pages={
          1-71
        }
}
Glucocorticoids are hormone products of the adrenal gland, which have long been recognized to have a profound impact on immunologic processes. The communication between immune and neuroendocrine systems is, however, bidirectional. The endocrine and immune systems share a common "chemical language," with both systems possessing ligands and receptors of "classical" hormones and immunoregulatory mediators. Studies in the early to mid 1980s demonstrated that monocyte-derived or recombinant… 

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In this report, human IL-1 is shown to activate the adrenocortical axis at the level of the brain, stimulating the release of the controlling hormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus.

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