Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by cytokines: actions and mechanisms of action.

  title={Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by cytokines: actions and mechanisms of action.},
  author={Andrew V. Turnbull and Catherine Laure Rivier},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  volume={79 1},
Glucocorticoids are hormone products of the adrenal gland, which have long been recognized to have a profound impact on immunologic processes. The communication between immune and neuroendocrine systems is, however, bidirectional. The endocrine and immune systems share a common "chemical language," with both systems possessing ligands and receptors of "classical" hormones and immunoregulatory mediators. Studies in the early to mid 1980s demonstrated that monocyte-derived or recombinant… 

Interaction between the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immunological system.

The immune-neuroendocrine interactions are involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions and the interactions with the HPA axis may represent a mechanism through which the immune system, by stimulating the production of glucocorticoids, avoids an overshoot of inflammatory response.

Cytokines, Leptin, and the Hypothalamo‐Pituitary‐Adrenal Axis

Leptin exerts a direct, dose‐dependent inhibition of stimulated cortisol secretion by normal human and rat adrenal cells in vitro, and this crosstalk between the endocrine, immune, and adipose systems may be of prime importance to homeostasis in pathophysiological events occurring during infection.

Immune modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during viral infection.

This review concentrates on the other side of the bi-directional loop of neuroendocrine-immune interactions, namely, the characterization of HPA axis activity during viral infection and the mechanisms employed by cytokines to stimulate glucocorticoid release.

New aspects of the immunoregulation by the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

The aim of the review was to summarize and outline of key interacting agents based upon recent experimental results that reveals an important role of certain neurotramsitters (such as dopamine) in immune regulation.

Review: Endotoxin and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

There appears to be a temporal and functional relation between the HPA-axis response to endotoxin and Nitric oxide formation in the neuro-endocrine hypothalamus, suggesting a stimulatory role for nitric oxide in modulating the H PA response to immune challenges.

Minireview: Neuro-immuno-endocrine modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by gp130 signaling molecules.

Nonresponsiveness of the HPA axis to glucocorticoid negative feedback control provides a defense from destructive effects of cytokine excess, as well as helping to modulate susceptibility or resistance to inflammatory disease.



Influence of Immune Signals on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis of the Rodent

  • C. Rivier
  • Biology
    Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
  • 1995
Observations indicate that cytokines released into the general circulation act on multiple sites within the H-P axis, a phenomenon that relies on the recruitment of a large number of pathways.

Stimulatory effect of interleukin-1 beta on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of the rat: influence of age, gender and circulating sex steroids.

  • C. Rivier
  • Biology, Medicine
    The Journal of endocrinology
  • 1994
The ability of IL-1 beta, injected peripherally, to stimulate the HPA axis as a function of stage of sexual maturation and the presence or absence of circulating sex steroids was examined, observing that this stimulatory action appeared to be influenced by the gender of the animals.

Role of the Cytokines in the Neuroendocrine-Immune System Axis

It is proposed that the local neuroendocrine cytokinergic tone may act in a facilitative manner to enhance the secretion of hypothalamic-pituitary hormones.

Cytokines as modulators of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis

Interleukin-1 stimulates the secretion of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor.

In this report, human IL-1 is shown to activate the adrenocortical axis at the level of the brain, stimulating the release of the controlling hormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) from the hypothalamus.

Regulation of the HPA Axis by Cytokines

The extensive interactions between different cytokines, the broad spectrum of pathophysiologies associated with increased cytokine production (including inflammatory and non-inflammatory stresses), and the number of tissues/cells capable of either synthesizing or responding to cytokines suggest that multiple mechanisms mediate the influence of cytokines on the HPA axis.

Mechanisms of Hypothalamic‐Pituitary‐Adrenal Axis Stimulation by Immune Signals in the Adult Rat a

The results illustrate the complexity of the mechanisms involved in the stimulation of the HPA axis and suggest that their specific involvement depends on the type, intensity, and duration of immune stimulation.

A functional anatomical analysis of central pathways subserving the effects of interleukin-1 on stress-related neuroendocrine neurons

It is concluded that medullary catecholaminergic projections to the PVH play either a mediating or a permissive role in the IL-1- induced activation of the central limb of the hypothalamo-pituitary- adrenal axis.

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity during chronic central administration of interleukin-2.

Along with the alteration of HPA activity seen in the IL-2-treated animals, chronic delivery of the cytokine caused periventricular tissue damage and gliosis, and may help to explain some of the endocrine disturbances seen in patients undergoing IL- 2 immunotherapy.