Regulation of mammalian autophagy in physiology and pathophysiology.

  title={Regulation of mammalian autophagy in physiology and pathophysiology.},
  author={Brinda Ravikumar and Sovan Sarkar and Janet E. Davies and Marie Futter and Mois{\'e}s Garc{\'i}a-Arencibia and Zeyn W. Green-Thompson and Maria Jimenez-Sanchez and Viktor I. Korolchuk and Maike Lichtenberg and Shouqing Luo and Dunecan C.O. Massey and Fiona M Menzies and K{\'e}vin Moreau and Usha Narayanan and Maurizio Renna and Farah H. Siddiqi and Benjamin R. Underwood and Ashley R Winslow and David C. Rubinsztein},
  journal={Physiological reviews},
  volume={90 4},
(Macro)autophagy is a bulk degradation process that mediates the clearance of long-lived proteins and organelles. Autophagy is initiated by double-membraned structures, which engulf portions of cytoplasm. The resulting autophagosomes ultimately fuse with lysosomes, where their contents are degraded. Although the term autophagy was first used in 1963, the field has witnessed dramatic growth in the last 5 years, partly as a consequence of the discovery of key components of its cellular machinery… 

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