Regulation of hepatic glucose production and the role of gluconeogenesis in humans: is the rate of gluconeogenesis constant?

@article{Nuttall2008RegulationOH,
  title={Regulation of hepatic glucose production and the role of gluconeogenesis in humans: is the rate of gluconeogenesis constant?},
  author={Frank Q. Nuttall and Angela L Ngo and Mary C. Gannon},
  journal={Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews},
  year={2008},
  volume={24}
}
We have been interested in the metabolic effects of ingested fuels, both in normal subjects and in people with type 2 diabetes. Recently, we have become interested in the regulation of glucose production and the regulation of gluconeogenesis in particular. We are not aware of a recent comprehensive review of these topics. Therefore, we have reviewed the currently available literature. 

Regulation of Glucose Production in the Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes

Recent experiments in canine models indicate that the direct effects of insulin on the liver are dominant over the indirect effects to regulate glucose production, and insulin-independent mechanisms by which hepatocytes sense intrahepatic carbohydrate levels to regulate carbohydrate disposal are identified.

The regulation of glucose metabolism: implications and considerations for the assessment of glucose homeostasis in rodents.

A discussion on the regulation of rodent glucose metabolism, highlighting key differences and similarities that exist between rodents and humans and some of the issues and considerations associated with assessing glucose homeostasis and insulin action are outlined.

The Hormones of Glucose Metabolism

This paper will examine the hormones that directly regulate or impact glucose metabolism and an overview of glycemic disorders is provided.

Role of proteins in insulin secretion and glycemic control.

Effects of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 inhibition on hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.

The data suggest that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of diseases characterized by insulin resistance and excessive hepatic glucose production.

Nutritional regulation of the anabolic fate of amino acids within the liver in mammals: concepts arising from in vivo studies

The present review examines the utilisation of amino acids (AA) within the liver in various physiopathological states in mammals and how the fates of AA are regulated.

Influence of plasma macronutrient levels on hepatic metabolism: role of regulatory networks in homeostasis and disease states

A detailed dynamic model for hepatic metabolism incorporating the regulatory mechanisms at signaling and transcriptional level is developed and indicates that higher levels of macronutrient in plasma results in impairment of metabolic functions due to perturbations in the regulatory circuit.
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