Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a widely used tranquilizer, is known to induce stomatocytic shape changes in human erythrocytes. However, the effect of CPZ on membrane mechanical properties of erythrocyte membranes has not been documented. In the present study we show that CPZ induces a dose-dependent increase in mechanical stability of erythrocyte ghost membrane. Furthermore, we document that spectrin specifically binds to CPZ intercalated into inside-out vesicles depleted of all peripheral proteins. These findings imply that CPZ-induced mechanical stabilization of the erythrocyte ghost membranes may be mediated by direct binding of spectrin to the bilayer. Membrane active drugs that partition into lipid bilayer can thus induce cytoskeletal protein interactions with the membrane and modulate membrane material properties.