60) at higher exercise intensities. During exercise, the major metabolic fate of blood glucose after entry into skeletal muscle cells is glycolysis (139, 157) and subsequent oxidation (61, 157). Regular exercise can improve glycemic control (11, 12). This may be due, in part, to the acute effects of exercise on glucose metabolism as well as training-induced adaptations. In individuals with type II diabetes, a single bout of exercise can reduce blood glucose concentrations (83) mainly because the exercise-induced increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake is intact (79) even when insulin action is impaired. Thus the molecular mechanism resulting in increased muscle glucose transport during exercise is recognized as a clinically relevant alternative pathway to increase glucose disposal in skeletal muscle in states of insulin resistance.