Regulation of PTEN by Rho small GTPases

@article{Li2005RegulationOP,
  title={Regulation of PTEN by Rho small GTPases},
  author={Zhong Li and Xuemei Dong and Zhenglong Wang and Wenzhong Jerry Liu and Ning Deng and Yu-Qiang Ding and Liuya Tang and Timothy Hla and Rong Zeng and Lin Li and Dianqing Wu},
  journal={Nature Cell Biology},
  year={2005},
  volume={7},
  pages={399-404}
}
PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue) is a phosphatase that dephosphorylates both protein and phosphoinositide substrates. It is mutated in a variety of human tumours and has important roles in a diverse range of biological processes, including cell migration and chemotaxis. PTEN's intracellular localization and presumably activity are regulated by chemoattractants in Dictyostelium and mouse neutrophils. However, the mechanisms for its regulation remain elusive. Here we show that RhoA and… 
Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue: Novel Regulation by Developmental Signaling
  • T. Jerde
  • Biology
    Journal of signal transduction
  • 2015
TLDR
This review focuses on an emerging literature on the regulation of PTEN at the transcriptional, posttranscriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels, and a focus is placed on the role developmental signaling pathways play in PTEN regulation.
Regulation and modulation of PTEN activity
TLDR
PTEN (Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently mutated in most human cancers and understanding the regulation of PTEN function, activity, stability, localization and its dysregulation outcomes and also the intracellular and extracellular role of PTen and paracrine role ofPTEN-L in tumor cells as an exogenous therapeutic agent can help to improve clinical conceptualization and treatment of cancer.
Focus on PTEN Regulation
TLDR
Current knowledge on mechanisms that regulate the expression and enzymatic activity of PTEN and its role in human diseases is summarized.
Posttranslational Regulation and Conformational Plasticity of PTEN.
TLDR
Current knowledge on posttranslational control and conformational plasticity ofPTEN is discussed, as well as therapeutic possibilities toward reestablishment of PTEN tumor-suppressor activity in cancer.
Understanding PTEN regulation: PIP2, polarity and protein stability
TLDR
The concept of PTEN as an ‘interfacial enzyme’, which exists in a high activity state when bound transiently at membrane surfaces containing its substrate and other acidic lipids, such as PtdIns(4,5)P2 and phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), is discussed.
Rho kinase proteins--pleiotropic modulators of cell survival and apoptosis.
TLDR
This review summarizes the many pleiotropic roles of ROCK signaling in survival and apoptosis, and suggests that controlled modulation of ROCK activity in tumor cells has the potential to significantly affect tumor survival and patient outcome.
A phosphorylation switch controls the spatiotemporal activation of Rho GTPases in directional cell migration
TLDR
A phosphorylation-mediated molecular switch comprising deleted in liver cancer 1, tensin-3 (TNS3), phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) controls the spatiotemporal activation of the small GTPases, Rac1 and RhoA, thereby initiating directional cell migration induced by growth factors.
PTEN Negatively Regulates Engulfment of Apoptotic Cells by Modulating Activation of Rac GTPase
TLDR
The data suggest that PTEN exerts control over efferocytosis potentially by regulating PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels that modulate Rac GTPase and F-actin reorganization through Vav1 exchange factor and enhancing apoptotic cell-induced anti-inflammatory response.
The regulation of cell motility and chemotaxis by phospholipid signaling
TLDR
This work has shown that in adenocarcinoma cells, PLC and the actin regulator cofilin seem to provide the direction-sensing machinery, whereas PI3K might regulate motility.
ROCK1 functions as a suppressor of inflammatory cell migration by regulating PTEN phosphorylation and stability.
TLDR
The results reveal ROCK1 as a physiologic regulator of PTEN whose function is to repress excessive recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils during acute inflammation.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 34 REFERENCES
Regulation of Phosphorylation Pathways by p21 GTPases
TLDR
Members of the Rho subfamily, and kinases that bind to these p21s are intimately involved in immediate morphological processes as well as long-term transcriptional events, with their associated kinases having a role in the integration of the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.
Regulation of phosphorylation pathways by p21 GTPases. The p21 Ras-related Rho subfamily and its role in phosphorylation signalling pathways.
TLDR
Members of the Rho subfamily, and kinases that bind to these p21s are intimately involved in immediate morphological processes as well as long-term transcriptional events, with their associated kinases having a role in the integration of the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.
Membrane-binding and activation mechanism of PTEN
  • Sudipto Das, J. Dixon, W. Cho
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2003
TLDR
A membrane-binding and activation mechanism is proposed for PTEN, in which the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of the C-terminal region serves as an electrostatic switch that controls the membrane translocation of the protein.
The lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN is critical for its tumor supressor function.
  • M. Myers, I. Pass, N. Tonks
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
TLDR
It is reported that a missense mutation in PTEN, PTEN-G129E, which is observed in two Cowden disease kindreds, specifically ablates the ability of PTEN to recognize inositol phospholipids as a substrate, suggesting that loss of the lipid phosphatase activity is responsible for the etiology of the disease.
Regulation of cell function by rho family GTPases
Rho GTPases act as molecular switches to control many basic cellular activities that are also critical to the specialized functions of phagocytic leukocytes. Our laboratory has studied the regulation
Regulation and functions of Rho-associated kinase.
TLDR
This review focuses on the regulation and cellular functions of Rho-associated kinase, which appears to mediate a large proportion of the signals from Rho and regulate dynamic reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins, such as stress fiber and focal adhesion formation.
...
...