Notch receptors are approximately 300 kDa cell surface glycoproteins whose activation by Notch ligands regulates cell fate decisions in the metazoa. The extracellular domain of Notch receptors has many epidermal growth factor like repeats that are glycosylated with O-fucose and O-glucose glycans as well as N-glycans. Disruption of O-fucose glycan synthesis leads to severe Notch signaling defects in Drosophila and mammals. Removal or addition of O-fucose glycan consensus sites on Notch receptors also leads to Notch signaling defects. Ligand binding and ligand-induced Notch signaling assays have provided insights into how changes in the O-fucose glycans of Notch receptors alter Notch signaling.