Regulation of GLUT4 biogenesis in muscle: evidence for involvement of AMPK and Ca(2+).

@article{Ojuka2002RegulationOG,
  title={Regulation of GLUT4 biogenesis in muscle: evidence for involvement of AMPK and Ca(2+).},
  author={Edward O. Ojuka and Terry E. Jones and Lorraine A. Nolte and May M. Chen and Brian R. Wamhoff and Michael Sturek and John O. Holloszy},
  journal={American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism},
  year={2002},
  volume={282 5},
  pages={
          E1008-13
        }
}
There is evidence suggesting that adaptive increases in GLUT4 and mitochondria in skeletal muscle occur in parallel. It has been reported that raising cytosolic Ca(2+) in myocytes induces increases in mitochondrial enzymes. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) induces an increase in GLUT4. We found that raising cytosolic Ca(2+) by exposing L6 myotubes to 5 mM caffeine for 3 h/day for 5 days induced increases in GLUT4 protein and in myocyte enhancer factor… 

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The mechanism by which Ca activates CaMKII is discussed, research techniques currently used to alter CaMK activity in cells are explained, and various exercise models and pharmacological agents that have been used to provide evidence that CaMK II plays an important role in regulating GLUT4 expression are highlighted.
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