Melatonin and stable circadian rhythms optimize maternal, placental and fetal physiology.
Impaired trophoblastic invasion and proliferation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of eclampsia, pre-eclampsia, spontaneous abortions and intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR). First trimester trophoblast cells (which do not grow in culture) and choriocarcinoma (BeWo) (which grow spontaneously, and are used as a model for proliferating trophoblast) were incubated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). BeWo cell growth was decreased dose-dependently by exogenous IL-1 beta at concentrations of 100-1000 pg/ml. This effect was first detected after 24 h of incubation with IL-1 beta, and persisted for up to 96 h of culture. In contrast, trophoblast cells isolated from first trimester placental tissue showed no growth response when stimulated with IL-1 beta. The levels of active interstitial collagenase produced by BeWo cells were increased by IL-1 beta (100-1000 pg/ml), which paralleled the decrease in cell growth. First trimester trophoblast cells produced lower levels of collagenase and this was not affected by incubation of the cells by IL-1 beta. These results indicate that IL-1 beta may regulate placental development, but further development of culture systems for first trimester trophoblast will be needed before this result can be confirmed.