Regulating the Shuttling of Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase II

  title={Regulating the Shuttling of Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase II},
  author={Luciano Di Croce},
  journal={Molecular and Cellular Biology},
  pages={3918 - 3920}
  • L. Di Croce
  • Published 15 August 2011
  • Biology
  • Molecular and Cellular Biology
The eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) transcribes most protein-coding RNAs (mRNAs) and the capped noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs (miRNAs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) (10). In the past 3 decades, our knowledge about the functional role of RNAPII during gene transcription has dramatically advanced (8). However, there are still several open questions regarding the regulatory mechanisms involved in the steps before and after transcription. In… 
Biogenesis of RNA Polymerases II and III Requires the Conserved GPN Small GTPases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
This study shows that the nuclear import defect of iwr1Δ, but not the GPN2 or GPN3 mutant defects, is partially suppressed by fusion of a nuclear localization signal to the RNA polymerase II subunit Rpb3, and suggests that theGPN proteins function upstream of Iwr1 in RNA polymerases II and III biogenesis.
Rbs1, a New Protein Implicated in RNA Polymerase III Biogenesis in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
It is demonstrated that a missense cold-sensitive mutation, rpc128-1007, in the sequence encoding the C-terminal part of the second largest Pol III subunit, C128, affects the assembly and stability of the enzyme and postulate that Rbs1 binds to the Pol III complex or subcomplex and facilitates its translocation to the nucleus.
Piggybacking on Classical Import and Other Non-Classical Mechanisms of Nuclear Import Appear Highly Prevalent within the Human Proteome
It is determined that nearly 50% of the human nuclear proteome does not have a predictable cNLS, suggesting that many of the subunits may enter the nucleus through an importin-α-dependent piggybacking mechanism.


The Protein Interaction Network of the Human Transcription Machinery Reveals a Role for the Conserved GTPase RPAP4/GPN1 and Microtubule Assembly in Nuclear Import and Biogenesis of RNA Polymerase II*
RPAP4/GPN1 is a member of a newly discovered GTPase family that contains a unique and highly conserved GPN loop motif that is essential, in conjunction with its GTP-binding motifs, for nuclear localization of POLR2A/RPB1 in a process that also requires microtubule assembly.
Human GTPases Associate with RNA Polymerase II To Mediate Its Nuclear Import
GPN1/GPN3 define a new family of small GTPases that are specialized for the transport of RNA polymerase II into the nucleus and a role for these proteins in nuclear import of RNAPII is demonstrated.
Structure of eukaryotic RNA polymerases.
A catalog of available structural information for Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III is provided, which showed that the active center region and core enzymes are similar to Pol II and that strong structural differences on the surfaces account for gene class-specific functions.
Iwr1 directs RNA polymerase II nuclear import.
Evolution of multisubunit RNA polymerases in the three domains of life
An overview of the evolutionary conservation of and differences between the multisubunit polymerases in the three domains of life is provided, and the 'elongation first' hypothesis for the evolution of transcriptional regulation is introduced.
RNA polymerase fidelity and transcriptional proofreading.
Classification and evolution of P-loop GTPases and related ATPases.
The distribution of nucleotide specificity among the proteins of the G TPase superclass indicates that the common ancestor of the entire superclass was a GTPase and that a secondary switch to ATPase activity has occurred on several independent occasions during evolution.
The metazoan Mediator co-activator complex as an integrative hub for transcriptional regulation
The Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved, multiprotein complex that is a key regulator of protein-coding genes in metazoan cells and can interact with and coordinate the action of numerous other co-activators and co-repressors, including those acting at the level of chromatin.
posting date. Parcs/Gpn3 is required for the nuclear accumulation of RNA polymerase II
  • Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • 2011