Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system

  title={Regional specialization within the intestinal immune system},
  author={Allan McI Mowat and William W. Agace},
  journal={Nature Reviews Immunology},
The intestine represents the largest compartment of the immune system. It is continually exposed to antigens and immunomodulatory agents from the diet and the commensal microbiota, and it is the port of entry for many clinically important pathogens. Intestinal immune processes are also increasingly implicated in controlling disease development elsewhere in the body. In this Review, we detail the anatomical and physiological distinctions that are observed in the small and large intestines, and… 

The Intestinal Immune System

The Immunology of the Gastrointestinal System

Diseases that are considered in this chapter include pernicious anaemia, coeliac disease, those related to immunodeficiency, inflammatory bowel disease and bacterial infections that affect distinct regions of the gastrointestinal tract.

Dendritic Cell Subsets in Intestinal Immunity and Inflammation

A division of labor between and collaboration among gut DC subsets in the context of intestinal homeostasis and inflammation will rationalize oral vaccine design and will provide insights into treatments that quiet pathological intestinal inflammation.

Guardians of the Gut – Murine Intestinal Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

Intestinal mononuclear phagocytes find themselves in a unique environment, most prominently characterized by its constant exposure to commensal microbiota and food antigens. This anatomic setting has

Microbiome and Gut Immunity: T Cells

The interplay between the microbiota and T cells is discussed, with a particular focus on the de novo induction of regulatory T cells within gut-draining lymph nodes (LNs), the impact of microbiota-derived metabolites on T cell differentiation, and the functional role of unique regulatory T cell subsets within the intestinal immune system.

Intestinal immune compartmentalization: implications of tissue specific determinants in health and disease.

In this review, what is known about the tissue intrinsic and extrinsic factors shaping immune compartments in the intestine are evaluated and the physiological and pathological consequences of a regionally distinct immune system in a single organ are discussed.

Development of dendritic cells in the intestine

Four bona fide DC subsets with distinct functions have been identified in adult LP based on their expression of CD11b and CD103 and a major aim of this project was to understand how these subsets might develop in the neonatal intestine.

B cell class switching in intestinal immunity in health and disease

The key mechanisms regulating class switching to IgA vs IgG in the intestine are reviewed, processes that could be therapeutically manipulated in infection and IBD.

The role of enteric glia in intestinal immunity.




Macrophages in intestinal homeostasis and inflammation

It is believed that understanding the factors that drive intestinal macrophage development in the steady state and how these may change in response to pathogens or inflammation could provide important insights into the treatment of IBD.

Dendritic cell subsets in the intestinal lamina propria: Ontogeny and function

The phenotype and ontogeny of these cDC subsets are addressed and recent findings indicating that these subsets play distinct roles in the regulation of mucosal immune responses in vivo are highlighted.

Dietary influences on intestinal immunity

Several recent findings are discussed that provide a compelling link between dietary compounds and the organization and maintenance of immune tissues and lymphocytes in the intestine.

Intestinal homeostasis and its breakdown in inflammatory bowel disease

It is now evident that immune effector modules that drive intestinal inflammation are conserved across innate and adaptive leukocytes and can be controlled by host regulatory cells.

Dynamics and function of solitary intestinal lymphoid tissue.

The functional role of SILT has largely been ignored for many years, but recent reports indicate that SILT serves as port of entry for intestinal antigens and enteropathogens and is involved in the induction of intestinal immune responses.

Intestinal epithelial cells and their role in innate mucosal immunity

The immense role of the intestinal epithelium is highlighted in coordinating the mucosal innate immune response in order to establish the limits not only for commensal microorganisms but also for foreign organisms or particles.

Gastrointestinal eosinophils

Eosinophils are resident cells of the gastrointestinal immune system whose levels can be induced by antigen exposure under Th2 conditions, in a manner that is critically regulated by eotaxin and IL‐5.