Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

@article{Howarth1996RegionalNB,
  title={Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N \& P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences},
  author={Robert W. Howarth and Gilles Billen and Dennis P. Swaney and Alan R. Townsend and Norbert A. Jaworski and Kate Lajtha and John A. Downing and Ragnar Elmgren and Nina F. M. Caraco and Thomas E. Jordan and Frank Berendse and John R. Freney and V. N. Kudeyarov and Peter S. Murdoch and Zhu Zhao-liang},
  journal={Biogeochemistry},
  year={1996},
  volume={35},
  pages={75-139}
}
We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr−1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr−1 . On a… 

An assessment of human influences on fluxes of nitrogen from the terrestrial landscape to the estuaries and continental shelves of the North Atlantic Ocean

  • R. Howarth
  • Environmental Science
    Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems
  • 2004
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TLDR
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The fate of nitrogen and phosphorus at the land-sea margin of the North Atlantic Ocean

Five large rivers that discharge on the western North Atlantic continental shelf carry about 45% of the nitrogen (N) and 70% of the phosphorus (P) that others estimate to be the total flux of these

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