Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences

@article{Howarth1996RegionalNB,
  title={Regional nitrogen budgets and riverine N & P fluxes for the drainages to the North Atlantic Ocean: Natural and human influences},
  author={R. Howarth and G. Billen and D. Swaney and A. Townsend and N. Jaworski and K. Lajtha and J. Downing and R. Elmgren and N. Caraco and T. Jordan and F. Berendse and J. Freney and V. Kudeyarov and P. Murdoch and Zhu Zhao-liang},
  journal={Biogeochemistry},
  year={1996},
  volume={35},
  pages={75-139}
}
We present estimates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus fluxes in rivers to the North Atlantic Ocean from 14 regions in North America, South America, Europe, and Africa which collectively comprise the drainage basins to the North Atlantic. The Amazon basin dominates the overall phosphorus flux and has the highest phosphorus flux per area. The total nitrogen flux from the Amazon is also large, contributing 3.3 Tg yr−1 out of a total for the entire North Atlantic region of 13.1 Tg yr−1 . On a… Expand
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