BACKGROUND Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains a significant long-term complication of prematurity. A standardized method of pulmonary function testing is still not available in preschool children with BPD. We investigated the feasibility of Electrical Impedance Segmentography (EIS) monitoring in this group and the impact of bronchodilator response (BDR) to salbutamol on the pattern of lung ventilation. METHODS We conducted a follow-up study of 4-year-old premature children who had been treated in the tertiary NICU. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the presence of BPD. EIS monitoring was performed before and 15 min after the administration of 400 µg of salbutamol (pMDI with spacer) in all subjects during spontaneous tidal breathing in upright position. Data were expressed as median segmental impedance amplitude differences and segmental ventilation inhomogeneity index (II) changes. RESULTS We included 51 children in our analysis: 33 with BPD (median birth weight-840 g; median gestational age-27 weeks) and 18 without BPD (1,290 g; 30 weeks, respectively). There was a significant increase in median segmental impedance amplitude after salbutamol in gravity non-dependent segments in children with BPD: upper left (UL): 462 versus 534 AU; (P = 0.003); upper right (UR): 481 versus 595 AU (P < 0.001) and II in these segments: UL: 0.046 versus 0.078 (P = 0.003) UR: 0.049 versus 0.064 (P = 0.006). There were no changes in the lower segments. There were no changes in ventilation pattern in children without BPD. CONCLUSION BDR to salbutamol increases breath amplitude in gravity non-dependent segments of the lungs during spontaneous tidal breathing in preschool children with BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2017;52:353-359. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.