Regional brain activation associated with different performance patterns during learning of a complex motor skill.

@article{Tracy2003RegionalBA,
  title={Regional brain activation associated with different performance patterns during learning of a complex motor skill.},
  author={Joseph I. Tracy and Adam E. Flanders and Saussan Madi and Joseph W Laskas and Eve Stoddard and Ayis Pyrros and Peter Natale and Nicole Delvecchio},
  journal={Cerebral cortex},
  year={2003},
  volume={13 9},
  pages={
          904-10
        }
}
In understanding the brain's response to extensive practice and development of high-level, expert skill, a key question is whether the same brain structures remain involved throughout the different stages of learning and a form of adaptation occurs, or a new functional circuit is formed with some structures dropping off and others joining. After training subjects on a set of complex motor tasks (tying knots), we utilized fMRI to observe that in subjects who learned the task well new regional… 

Functional changes in brain activity during acquisition and practice of movement sequences.

TLDR
Results suggest that different neural structures (involving a premotor-parietal-cerebellar circuit) play a role in a sequential maze learning task.

Changes in Brain Activation during the Acquisition of a Multifrequency Bimanual Coordination Task: From the Cognitive Stage to Advanced Levels of Automaticity

TLDR
Imaging findings showed that activation decreased in bilateral opercular areas, bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the right ventral premotor and supramarginal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate sulcus during the learning stage and in the supplementary motor area during the automatization stage, supporting their crucial role in long-term motor memory formation for coordination tasks.

The mind of expert motor performance is cool and focused

Functional prefrontal reorganization accompanies learning-associated refinements in surgery: A manifold embedding approach

TLDR
The results indicate that learning-related refinements in technical performance are mediated by temporal reductions in prefrontal activation, suggesting an evolving pattern of cortical responses.

Time course of changes in brain activity and functional connectivity associated with long-term adaptation to a rotational transformation.

TLDR
It is suggested that visuomotor adaptation is not only reflected in persistent changes in activity in motor-related regions, but also in the strengthening and maintenance of specific functional connections.

Functional Brain Changes Following Cognitive and Motor Skills Training

TLDR
Altered engagement of large-scale, spatially distributed cortical brain networks and subcortical striatal brain regions may serve as candidate neural markers of training interventions to identify common patterns of functional brain changes associated with training across a diverse range of intervention protocols.

Unreflective actions? complex motor skill acquisition to enhance spatial cognition

Cognitive science has recently moved toward action-integrated paradigms to account for some of its most remarkable findings. This novel approach has opened up new venues for the sport sciences. In

Activity in superior parietal cortex during training by observation predicts asymmetric learning levels across hands

TLDR
Functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to show that during passive observation, activity in the superior parietal lobule contralateral to the identity of the observed hand, predicts subsequent performance gains in individual subjects and sheds new light on the coding level in SPL.

Could Variations in Technical Skills Acquisition in Surgery Be Explained by Differences in Cortical Plasticity?

TLDR
It is suspected that alterations in brain activation foci accompany a transition through phases of surgical skills learning and that those patterns of activation may vary according to technical ability.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES

Learning related modulation of functional retrieval networks in man.

TLDR
It appears necessary to develop elaborated and explicit computational models for prefrontal and medial temporal functions in order to derive detailed empirical predictions, and in combination with an efficient use and development of functional neuroimaging approaches, to further the understanding of the processing significance of these regions in memory.

Neural correlates of motor memory consolidation.

TLDR
Functional imaging of the brain demonstrates that within 6 hours after completion of practice, while performance remains unchanged, the brain engages new regions to perform the task; there is a shift from prefrontal regions of the cortex to the premotor, posterior parietal, and cerebellar cortex structures, specific to recall of an established motor skill.

The effects of practice on the functional anatomy of task performance.

TLDR
The effects of practice on the functional anatomy observed in two different tasks, a verbal and a motor task, are reviewed and a "scaffolding-storage" framework is interpreted, possibly representing storage of particular associations or capabilities that allow for skilled performance.

The neural basis of visual skill learning: an fMRI study of mirror reading.

TLDR
The results suggest that learning to read mirror-reversed text involves a progression from visuospatial transformation to direct recognition of transformed letters.

Functional Anatomical Correlates of Controlled and Automatic Processing

Behavioral studies have shown that consistent practice of a cognitive task can increase the speed of performance and reduce variability of responses and error rate, reflecting a shift from controlled

The neural basis of the central executive system of working memory

TLDR
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activation during the concurrent performance of two tasks, which is expected to engage the CES, results support the view that the prefrontal cortex is involved in human working memory.

Functional heterogeneity in cingulate cortex: the anterior executive and posterior evaluative regions.

TLDR
There is a fundamental dichotomy between the functions of anterior and posterior cingulate cortices, which subserves primarily executive functions related to the emotional control of visceral, skeletal, and endocrine outflow and evaluation of spatial orientation and memory.

Activation of the hippocampus in normal humans: a functional anatomical study of memory.

TLDR
The results provide evidence for selective activation of the human hippocampal region in association with memory function and lead to a suggestion about the neural basis of repetition priming: following presentation of a stimulus, less neural activity is required to process the same stimulus.

Parallel neural networks for learning sequential procedures