Arterial Location-Specific Calcification at the Carotid Artery and Aortic Arch for Chronic Kidney Disease, Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and Dyslipidemia
Increased arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of death from cardiovascular disease, and aortic stiffness is more predictive than stiffness of other arterial regions. Because little is known about the effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on regional arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity (PWV) of four different arterial segments was measured in patients who had type 2 diabetes with and without various stages of CKD. A total of 434 patients had type 2 diabetes, and there were 192 healthy control subjects who were comparable in age and gender. GFR was estimated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. The patients with diabetes were classified into CKD stages by the definition of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. PWV was measured in the heart-femoral, heart-carotid, heart-brachial, and femoral-ankle segments simultaneously using an automatic pulse wave analyzer. PWV of each arterial region was increased in patients who had diabetes without kidney damage and was increased further in a stepwise manner with the advanced stages of CKD. The increase in PWV was greater in the heart-femoral and heart-carotid regions than in the heart-brachial and femoral-ankle segments. However, after adjustment for age, BP, and other confounding factors using a multiple regression model, decreased GFR was independently associated with increased PWV of the heart-femoral region but not with PWV of other arterial segments. In type 2 diabetes, CKD was associated with increased stiffness of arteries, particularly of the aorta. The cross-sectional result may explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease in CKD, although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm it.