Regional Coexistence of Species and Competition between Rare Species.

  title={Regional Coexistence of Species and Competition between Rare Species.},
  author={Richard A. Levins and David C. Culver},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  volume={68 6},
  • R. Levins, D. Culver
  • Published 1 June 1971
  • Environmental Science
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
A model is developed for the coexistence and exclusion of species over a region of similar habitable patches. Since the balance of local extinction and colonization would leave some patches unoccupied even without competitors, species may coexist even when all the patches are the same. Regional competition coefficients are found when species affect the local extinction or migration rates of each other. Rare species can regulate each other and even exclude other species completely. 
Habitat destruction and extinction in competitive and mutualistic metacommunities
Algebraic and graphical techniques are used to study metacommunity models of weak competition or locally facultative mutualism in which species may coexist within patches to predict their response to habitat loss.
Competition and coexistence in spatially subdivided habitats.
A model is developed to discuss competition and coexistence in subdivided but locally stable habitats that predicts that in some cases it is possible for one species to exclude the other species from a geographic region, while in other cases two competing species can stably coexist.
Competition–colonization trade-off between perennial plants: exclusion of the rare species, hysteresis effects and the robustness of co-existence under replacement competition
It is found that, in addition to protected co-existence by the competition-colonization trade-off, the two species may also co-exist in an unprotected manner (i.e. such that a single-species equilibrium is also stable), and the rare species may be excluded and the common species preserved regardless of which of the twospecies is rare.
Spatial ecology of multiple parasitoids of a patchily‐distributed host: implications for species coexistence
Four generalist and one specialist parasitoid species associated with the holly leaf miner, Phytomyza ilicis, in a woodland network of 127 holly trees were investigated.
Coexistence of competitors in patchy environment with and without predation
It is concluded, contrary to previous results, that equivalent predation may facilitate prey coexistence, given sufficient spatial variance but not much covariance in prey abundances, and provided that predators forage non-randomly, congregating in the high abundance patches.
Competition and Regional Coexistence
A model of the competition between two species is developed and it is found that in some cases it is possible for one species to exclude another species from a geographic region, but there is no possibility of a "priority effect" where the first species in the region can always exclude the other.
Limiting dissimilarity in plants: randomness prevents exclusion of species with similar competitive abilities
A model in which each of two competing plant species is characterized by three parameters is found that when seed production varies stochastically in time, species too similar with respect to these parameters can not outcompete each other, a special case of which is that ecologically identical species coexist stably.
Effects of asymmetric dispersal on the coexistence of competing species.
It is shown that spatially asymmetric dispersal, i.e. the disproportionate transport of propagules towards or away from particular habitat patches in a metacommunity, when it differs between species, can promote the coexistence of competing species even in the absence of environmental heterogeneity among habitat patches.
Competition and Coexistence in Regional Habitats
A two‐species metapopulation model that includes local competitive dynamics is analyzed to study the population dynamics of two competing species in spatially structured habitats.


The Theory of Island Biogeography
Preface to the Princeton Landmarks in Biology Edition vii Preface xi Symbols Used xiii 1. The Importance of Islands 3 2. Area and Number of Speicies 8 3. Further Explanations of the Area-Diversity
Levins, R., in Extinction
  • Ants of Colorado (Univ. of Colorado Press,
  • 1963
Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer
  • Bull. Entomol. Soc. Amer
  • 1969