In vitro plant regeneration from immature cotyledon explants of macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla L. Johnson)
Adventitious shoots were regenerated from immature cotyledons of four almond cultivars (`Ne Plus Ultra', `Nonpareil', `Carmel' and `Parkinson'). Open-pollinated fruit were collected from orchard-grown trees 100–115 days after full bloom. The proximal ends of the cotyledons were excised and the embryonic axes discarded. The effects of different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and the presence or absence of light for the first 7 days of culture were determined. Shoot regeneration rates were highest for cotyledons cultured for 8 weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium containing TDZ (10.0 μM), followed by 4 weeks on medium without plant growth regulators. Regeneration levels were further improved if cotyledons were maintained in darkness for the first 7 days. IBA (0.5 μM) significantly reduced the development of adventitious shoots. The frequency of cotyledons that developed adventitious shoots under the optimum tested conditions for `Ne Plus Ultra', `Nonpareil', `Carmel', and `Parkinson' were 80.0%, 73.3%, 100.0% and 86.7%, respectively.