Refugees and Exile: From "Refugee Studies" to the National Order of Things

  title={Refugees and Exile: From "Refugee Studies" to the National Order of Things},
  author={Liisa H. Malkki},
  journal={Annual Review of Anthropology},
This review offers a critical mappingo f the construction-in-progress of refugees and displacement as an anthropological domain of knowledge. It situates the emergence of “the refugee” and of “refugee studies” in two ways: first, historically, by looking at the management of displacement in Europe in the wake of World War II; and second, by tracing an array of different discursive and institutional domains within which “the refugee” and/or “being in exile” have been constituted. These domains… 
Constructing “purgatory”: How refugee camp architecture inscribes refugees into the a-political, a-historical, and moveable
Recent studies in the field of Performance Studies have examined the performativity and spatial practices in refugee camps with particular attention to the political consequences of these
Reflections on Refugee Studies and the Study of Refugees: Implications for Policy Analysts
IntroductionToday refugees are statistically an important issue. The United Nations (UN, 2010) reports that 25.2 million people, an overwhelming majority from the Global South, are displaced: 10.55
African Refugee History
In Purity and Exile (1995a), Liisa Malkki’s ethnography of Burundian Hutu refugees living in mid-1980s Tanzania, Malkki draws attention to a complex and paradoxical relationship between refugees and
“Interrogating Borders: A Transnational Approach to Refugee Research in Vancouver”
Immigration is predicated on the centrality of the nation-state. The authors argue that analyzing settlement patterns and successful integration within a strictly national context is insufficient to
The Refugee in International Society: Between Sovereigns
With the unrelenting unrest in places such as Iraq, Afghanistan and the Sudan, the plight of refugees has become an increasingly discussed topic in international relations. Why do we have refugees?
Exile and desire : refugees, aesthetics and the territorial borders of international relations
The thesis begins by exploring state-centric conceptualisation of refugees in international relations and the incapacity of territorialised notions of identity and responsibility to give a properly
Bordering the other, building the nation-state: positioning the refugee as a subject of school knowledge
ABSTRACT The refugee has become part of the scholarly discourse of schooling, largely centring considerations of psychological trauma that refugee children may have experienced. However, the role
Palestinian Refugees of the Oslo Generation: Thinking beyond the Nation?
Abstract This article analyzes the political narratives and critiques of young Palestinian refugees who have grown up in the bleak post-Oslo period. Based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews
The Birth of a ‘Discipline’: From Refugee to Forced Migration Studies
This essay seeks to understand and explain the birth of Forced Migration Studies. It argues that the turn from Refugee Studies to Forced Migration Studies must be viewed against the backdrop of the
DIFFICULT DISTINCTIONS: Refugee Law, Humanitarian Practice, and Political Identification in Gaza
This article examines how humanitarian practice produced enduring distinctions within the Gazan population and provided a space in which ideas about Palestinian citizenship began to take shape and how humanitarianism in Palestine was guided by the larger, emerging postwar refugee regime.


Refugees in Developing Countries and Transnational Organization
Large-scale refugee flows, typically occurring in developing countries, inspire the formation of transnational networks that pose new issues of policymaking, direction, execution, and legitimacy.
The Formation of New States as a Refugee-Generating Process
Considered as a social phenomenon, refugees can be thought of as the migratory segment of a larger group of victims, singled out for the willful exercise of extraordinary malevolence on the part of
The Refugee in Flight: Kinetic Models and forms of Displacement
After the publication of Fairchild’s early Immigrant Backgrounds in which he emphasised the importance of such immigrant characteristics as race culture and nationality it became an axiom of
Rural refugees in Africa: what the eye does not see.
Adding the totals on a map published by UNHCR in Spring 1979 gives 2,140,000 refugees, but the figure cited by the OAU SecretaryGeneral in an interview published at about the same time was the more usual 4 million, presumably including the unrecognized Guineans, the Zaireans and others.
Refugees, Immigrants, and the State
A realist versus nominalist debate within the field of international migration questions whether refugees are fundamentally distinct from immigrants or whether the category is a social construction
The Evolution of the International Refugee System
  • D. Gallagher
  • Political Science, Law
    The International migration review
  • 1989
The background and handling of some of the key refugee movements since World War II are reviewed and the legal and institutional adjustments that have been made to deal with new refugee movements that have occurred predominantly, but not exclusively, in the developing world are traced.
Making National Cultures in The Global Ecumene
What is at stake in the anthropological study of nations and nationalism? On the one hand, the concept of culture itself, and on the other, the prospects for conceptualizing cultural differences in
Exile and Resettlement: Refugee Theory.
People within any community differ in their sense of identification with their surroundings and in the degree of intensity with which they share prevalent, majority beliefs.1 Therefore, it is
Durable Solutions for Developing Country Refugees 1
  • B. Stein
  • Political Science
    The International migration review
  • 1986
This article seeks to provide some background to recent changes in refugee problems that have impeded the attainment of durable solutions and to explore some of the difficulties and possibilities for durable solutions in developing countries in the eighties.
National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity Among Scholars and Refugees
"To be rooted is perhaps the most important and least recognized need of the human soul," wrote Simone Weil (1987:41) in wartime England in 1942. In our day, new conjunctures of theoretical enquiry