Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays

@article{Russomanno2015RefreshingRB,
  title={Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays},
  author={Alexander Russomanno and M. Sile O'Modhrain and Richard Brent Gillespie and Matthew W. M. Rodger},
  journal={IEEE Transactions on Haptics},
  year={2015},
  volume={8},
  pages={287-297}
}
The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive… 

Figures from this paper

Mechanism Design for Improved Resolution in Refreshable Tactile Graphics
Tactile perception is a medium that enables the blind to read text and diagrams. The available books are bulky and at times, expensive. Refreshable Braille Displays are commercially available devices
A Touch Based Finger-Motion-Adaptive Control Design for Braille Reading
TLDR
Developing engineering design rules by which Braille reading devices can be created at low costs and with enhanced user experience is focused on, with this aim, a touch based finger-motion-adaptive control design algorithm is proposed for use on a rotating-wheel type BrailleReading machine.
Investigations on Laterotactile Braille Reading
TLDR
Preliminary test results indicate that users can read words even as nonsensical letters brush past the reading finger, which has implications in the design of a cost effective braille display.
Experimental Evaluation of a Braille-Reading-Inspired Finger Motion Adaptive Algorithm
TLDR
Experimental results on the feasibility of an algorithm that can render a machine to automatically adapt to reversal gestures of one’s finger found that the finger motion adaptive algorithm (FMAA) is useful in achieving cooperation between human finger and the machine.
Evaluating Approaches to Rendering Braille Text on a High-Density Pin Display
TLDR
It is concluded that as long as center-to-center dot spacing and dot placement is maintained, the dot diameter may be open to variability for rendering braille on a high density tactile display.
Design and Implementation of Digital Braille System for The Visually Impaired
TLDR
The digital braille system designed converts digital text from documents to braille using python script and is driven by electromagnetic push-pull solenoids connected to an Arduino Uno board.
An approach towards the development of refreshable Braille Computer Display Unit
TLDR
A novel proposal about working and development of an electronic refreshable braille display unit to build a getaway to the digital world for the blind people.
Design and Validation of the Readable Device: A Single-Cell Electromagnetic Refreshable Braille Display
TLDR
The design and characterization of a new cost-effective single-cell Electromagnetic Refreshable Braille Display, the Readable system are presented and results demonstrate the effectiveness of the device in correctly reproducing alphanumeric content, opening promising perspectives in every-day life applications.
Text Detection and Communicator Using Braille for Assistance to Visually Impaired
TLDR
This paper presents the prototype of real-time text communicator in form of braille actuations, a novel concept of blind assistive gadget which aims to make the books, eBooks, handwritten documents available to the blind.
Design and simulation of ferrofluid tactile screen for braille interface
TLDR
This project explores developments in ferrofluids, a type of magnetorheological liquid, and its possible applications in a magnetically controlled display layer and aims to achieve dimensions closer to existing mechanical braille systems.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 28 REFERENCES
The continuing quest for the 'Holy Braille' of tactile displays
TLDR
The CBI braille requirements summary (available through the NBP website) is a summary of braille specifications that include braille dot dimensions, spacing, displacement, lifting force, and response time requirements.
A word-superiority effect with print and braille characters
TLDR
Experiment 1 found that with grade 1 braille, as with print, letter search is about 10% faster through common words than through nonwords, which indicates that the word advantage is at encoding rather than comparison.
Measuring Braille reading speed with the MNREAD test
TLDR
A new, standardized method for measuring Braille reading speed, adapted from the MNREAD test for print reading speed is described, featuring the use of well-characterized text samples composed of simple vocabulary, presented in a standard spatial layout, with sample length measured as the number of characters.
On the tangibility of letters and braille
  • J. Loomis
  • Psychology
    Perception & psychophysics
  • 1981
TLDR
The congruence of tangibility and legibility for these conditions, in which the senses were matched in spatial resolution, supports the idea that braille characters are more tangible by virtue of their greater distinctiveness after the low-pass spatial filtering of cutaneous processing.
Texture Display Mouse KAT: Vibrotactile Pattern and Roughness Display
TLDR
A novel haptic mouse KAT (KAIST artificial touch) is presented that can be used as a human-computer interface and offers the capability of displaying properties such as patterns, gratings and roughness and a new texture display mouse is developed.
Active and passive tactile braille recognition
Subjects made visual matches to individual braille characters or named two-letter braille words. Tactile examination of braille was either active or passive. Active touch yielded superior performance
Tactual Perception: A Source Book
Editorial preface William Schiff and Emerson Foulke 1. Tactual perception in historical perspective: David Katz's world of touch Lester E. Krueger 2. The psychophysics of touch Carl E. Sherrick and
Active Movement Reduces the Tactile Discrimination Performance
TLDR
The results show that active arm movement also increases tactile discrimination thresholds which has never been shown before, and it is shown that tactile sensitivity drops at approximately 100 ms before the actual arm movement.
T-PaD: Tactile Pattern Display through Variable Friction Reduction
TLDR
The theory, design and construction of a haptic display for creating texture sensations through variations in surface friction and using finger position and velocity feedback on the display allows for the creation of spatial texture sensations.
...
...