Refresher corner Cardiac syndrome X : pathogenesis and management

  title={Refresher corner Cardiac syndrome X : pathogenesis and management},
  author={Juan Carlos Kaski and Kamran Iqbal},
The term Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX) describes patients presenting with typical exertional chest pain suggestive of myocardial ischemia, a positive exercise stress test result, and angiographically normal epicardial coronary arteries. CSX is more prevalent in women than in men, and the vast majority of women with CSX are peri or post-menopausal. Thus, oestrogen deficiency has been postulated to have a pathogenic role in CSX. Low oestrogen levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and an… CONTINUE READING


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