Refractory carcinoid syndrome: a review of treatment options.

  title={Refractory carcinoid syndrome: a review of treatment options.},
  author={Rachel Sim{\~o}es Pimenta Riechelmann and Allan AL Pereira and Juliana Florinda M R{\^e}go and Frederico Perego Costa},
  journal={Therapeutic advances in medical oncology},
  volume={9 2},
Carcinoid syndrome (CSy) is a constellation of symptoms that may commonly present in patients with well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), with somatostatin analogs (SSAs) being the first-line option for symptom management. However, symptomatic progression eventually occurs and in this scenario of a refractory CSy; several treatment options have been studied such as dose escalation of SSA, interferon and liver-directed therapies. Nevertheless, recent phase III trials have contributed… CONTINUE READING

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