Refractive errors in Singapore medical students.

@article{Chow1990RefractiveEI,
  title={Refractive errors in Singapore medical students.},
  author={Y. C. Chow and Baljean Dhillon and Paul T. K. Chew and Sek Jin Chew},
  journal={Singapore medical journal},
  year={1990},
  volume={31 5},
  pages={472-3}
}
The refraction of 128 third-year medical students aged 20-22 was studied using a Topcon autorefractometer. The population was predominantly Chinese and comprised 44% females and 56% males. The mean refractive error was -3.75 D for males and -4.76D for females. In all, 82% of the students were myopic, 72% were found to have astigmatism. This study confirms clinical impressions that Singapore students have one of the highest prevalence rates of myopia and astigmatism in the world.