Refraction and the spitting behavior of the archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)

  title={Refraction and the spitting behavior of the archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)},
  author={Lawrence M. Dill},
  journal={Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology},
  • L. Dill
  • Published 1 June 1977
  • Environmental Science
  • Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
Summary1.Archerfish (Toxotes chatareus) spit droplets of water at aerial insect prey, knocking them onto the water surface to be eaten. Since the fish's eyes remain completely below the water surface during sighting and spitting the fish must deal with potentially severe refraction effects at the air-water interface. High speed (200 f.p.s.) motion picture films of 480 spitting sequences were analyzed to determine the magnitude of the refraction effect and to suggest how the fish compensate for… 

Striking of underwater prey by a reef heron,Egretta gularis schistacea

SummaryThe ability of a piscivorous bird, the western reef heron,Egretta gularis schistacea, to cope with light refraction at the air/water interface was investigated. The heron's capture rate of

A spitting image: specializations in archerfish eyes for vision at the interface between air and water

Using microspectrophotometry to characterize the spectral absorbance of photoreceptors, it is found that archerfish have differentially tuned their rods and cones across their retina, correlated with spectral differences in aquatic and aerial fields of view.

Aerial and aquatic feeding in the silver arawana, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum

The comparatively large gape during leaping may facilitate prey capture by overcoming variability in the apparent position of the prey due to refraction, while the delayed onset of mouth opening may serve to reduce the effects of drag.

Hunting in archerfish – an ecological perspective on a remarkable combination of skills

  • S. Schuster
  • Environmental Science
    Journal of Experimental Biology
  • 2018
It is suggested that the evolution of shooting has strongly pushed the co-evolution of diverse other skills that are needed to secure a catch in archerfish.

Intraspecific kleptoparasitism and counter-tactics in the archerfish (Toxotes chatareus)

Several counter-kleptoparasitism behaviours were observed, including jumping to grab prey directly, aggression, spitting technique, and positioning, which increased with both prey size and prey height (analogous to handling time).

Stationary underwater prey missed by reef herons,Egretta gularis: head position and light refraction at the moment of strike

SummaryThis paper attempts to verify the importance of spatial positioning of the eyes of reef heronsEgretta gularis schistacea, when coping with light refraction at the air-water interface. The

Visual acuity in the archerfish: behavior, anatomy, and neurophysiology.

The archerfish can be used as an animal model for studying how visual details are streamed to the brain by retinal output, indicating that retinal ganglion cells in the area centralis stream information to thebrain at a comparable resolution with which it is sampled by the photoreceptors.

Archer fish jumping prey capture: kinematics and hydrodynamics

Archer fish are unique aquatic predators capable of jumping multiple body lengths straight up out of the water using oscillatory caudal fin kinematics, in concert with other fins, for propulsion and stabilization.

Rapid depth perception in hunting archerfish. II. An analysis of potential cues

It is suggested that these fish use an elaborate analysis of looming to rapidly gauge initial height, and this work shows that binocular cues are not required and that this view is not compatible with the view that archerfish use a flexible combination of cues.



Predation by “shooting” in archer fish, Toxotes jaculatrix: Accuracy and sequences

Four adult shooting archer fish were studied in a captive situation and the accuracy with which they “shot” for prey and the sequences that they performed during shooting were analyzed.

Prey Capture by the Brown Pelican

For the first time, the use of the bill and pouch during prey capture by diving Brown Pelicans is described, which accurately represents the technique Brown Pelicans use when diving to catch live fish.

The Hunting Behavior and Success of Forster's Tern

An observational field study was made on predation by Forster's Tern to determine the relationship of handling time to size of fish, and found that handling time increased proportionally as the length of the fish squared and was a satisfactory index of prey size.

Comparative Feeding Ecology of Wintering Abult and Juvenile Royal Terns (Aves: Laridae, Sterninae)

Results confirm Lack's and Ashmole's basic hypothesis that extended parental care and reduced feeding ability of young have played a significant role in the evolution of seabird clutch size and suggest that foraging differences must be incorporated in future predator-prey models.

Morphologisch-anatomische und histologische untersuchungen am auge des schützenfisches Toxotes jaculatrix (Pallas 1766) (Toxotidae), nebst bemerkungen zum spuckgehaben

  • K. H. Lüling
  • Biology
    Zeitschrift für Morphologie und Ökologie der Tiere
  • 2004
Theoretisch-Skologisehe Bedentung der in sehr gro~er Zahl vorhandenen Dunkelelemente (Stabehen) im Toxotes-Auge, insbesondere ihre Zapfen-, St~ibehenund ~uBere KSrnerschicht.

The Archer Fish

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