Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: changing concepts and taxonomy

@article{StantonHicks1995ReflexSD,
  title={Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: changing concepts and taxonomy},
  author={M. d’Arcy Stanton-Hicks and Wilfrid F. J{\"a}nig and Samuel J. Hassenbusch and James D. Haddox and R Boas and P Wilson},
  journal={Pain},
  year={1995},
  volume={63},
  pages={127-133}
}
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: facts and hypotheses
TLDR
The results of several experimental studies suggest that sympathetic dys-function consists of supersensitivity to catecholamines induced by (partial) autonomic denervation, and it has been suggested that excitation of sensory nerve fibres at axonal level causes release of neuropeptides at the peripheral endings of these fibres.
CRPS is a Disease of the CNS. The Disturbed Communication between brain and Body
TLDR
A hypothesis stating that CRPS is a disease of the central nervous system is presented and on which clinical and experimental data this hypothesis is based is argued with special focus on the sympathetic nervous system.
Complex regional pain syndrome type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy)
TLDR
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy as a three word term suffers from three flaws; it implies that the problem is a reflexive response to an insult, a simplistic and nonspecific extension of the"vicious circle" theory, and suggests that the sympathetic nervous system causes the pain, and implies by extension that sympathetic blockade relieves the pain.
Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Including “Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy” and “Causalgia”
TLDR
Clinical experience supports early intervention with sympatholytic procedures (pharmacological or nerve block techniques), but further scientific data is required to confirm the appropriate timing and relative efficacy of different procedures.
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TLDR
Case-series studies suggest that spinal cord stimulation is a safe and effective treatment for many people with advanced CRPS who have not obtained adequate relief with other treatments.
Complex regional pain syndromes: new pathophysiological concepts and therapies
TLDR
A review based on the current literature concerning the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of Complex regional pain syndrome is provided.
Chronic pain management in children. Part II: reflex sympathetic dystrophy
TLDR
The extremity by definition develops after an initiating noxious event, is not limited to the distribution of a single peripheral exhibits signs of autonomic dysfunction, and is apparently disproportionate to the inciting event.
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: a multidisciplinary approach.
TLDR
It appears that the triggering factor in many children is related to injury, illness, or psychological distress in any combination, and may affect different areas of the body to a greater or lesser extent.
Concise Review for Clinicians Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
TLDR
Like most medical conditions, early diagnosis and treatment increase the likelihood of a successful outcome, Accordingly, patients with clinical signs and symptoms of CRPS after an injury should be referred immediately to a physician with expertise in evaluating and treating this condition.
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References

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Under pathophysiological conditions, the sympathetic supply to the extremities may acquire a remarkable role in the generation and maintenance of pain states that are designated by the generic term
Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
TLDR
The role of clonidine in the treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy is investigated and the role of peripheral blood flow dysregulation in pain sensation and edema is investigated.
The causalgia-dystonia syndrome.
TLDR
It is impossible to decide whether this distressing syndrome is a true functional disorder of the central nervous system, or is of psychogenic origin, but two patients recovered spontaneously.
The movement disorder of reflex sympathetic dystrophy
TLDR
The patients have focal dystonia, weakness, spasms, tremor, difficulty initiating movement, and increased tone and reflexes, which most frequently occur concomitantly with sudomotor or vasomotor changes and pain.
Pain Mechanisms: A physiologic Interpretation of Causalgia and Its Related States
TLDR
The objective of this study was to establish a baseline level of understanding of the autonomic nervous system in relation to chronic pain syndromes and to investigate the role of emotion in the development of these disorders.
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TLDR
In 15 patients with dystonia or tremor in whom the onset of abnormal movements was related, in time and in distribution, to injury of a body part, possible predisposing factors may have contributed to the pathogenesis of the trauma induced abnormal involuntary movements.
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