Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: changing concepts and taxonomy

  title={Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: changing concepts and taxonomy},
  author={M. d’Arcy Stanton-Hicks and Wilfrid F. J{\"a}nig and Samuel J. Hassenbusch and James D. Haddox and R Boas and P Wilson},

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: facts and hypotheses

The results of several experimental studies suggest that sympathetic dys-function consists of supersensitivity to catecholamines induced by (partial) autonomic denervation, and it has been suggested that excitation of sensory nerve fibres at axonal level causes release of neuropeptides at the peripheral endings of these fibres.

CRPS is a Disease of the CNS. The Disturbed Communication between brain and Body

A hypothesis stating that CRPS is a disease of the central nervous system is presented and on which clinical and experimental data this hypothesis is based is argued with special focus on the sympathetic nervous system.

Complex regional pain syndrome type I (reflex sympathetic dystrophy)

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy as a three word term suffers from three flaws; it implies that the problem is a reflexive response to an insult, a simplistic and nonspecific extension of the"vicious circle" theory, and suggests that the sympathetic nervous system causes the pain, and implies by extension that sympathetic blockade relieves the pain.

Complex Regional Pain Syndromes (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy and Causalgia) and Spinal Cord Stimulation

Case-series studies suggest that spinal cord stimulation is a safe and effective treatment for many people with advanced CRPS who have not obtained adequate relief with other treatments.

Complex regional pain syndromes: new pathophysiological concepts and therapies

A review based on the current literature concerning the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of Complex regional pain syndrome is provided.

Chronic pain management in children. Part II: reflex sympathetic dystrophy

The extremity by definition develops after an initiating noxious event, is not limited to the distribution of a single peripheral exhibits signs of autonomic dysfunction, and is apparently disproportionate to the inciting event.

Concise Review for Clinicians Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Like most medical conditions, early diagnosis and treatment increase the likelihood of a successful outcome, Accordingly, patients with clinical signs and symptoms of CRPS after an injury should be referred immediately to a physician with expertise in evaluating and treating this condition.

New treatments for reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

  • R. Schwartzman
  • Medicine, Psychology
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 2000
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy was first described by Mitchell, in 1864.1 It has been difficult for clinicians to diagnose this disorder because it has many variations, often follows minor injury, and



Pathobiology of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy: Some General Considerations

Under pathophysiological conditions, the sympathetic supply to the extremities may acquire a remarkable role in the generation and maintenance of pain states that are designated by the generic term

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy

The role of clonidine in the treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy is investigated and the role of peripheral blood flow dysregulation in pain sensation and edema is investigated.

Pain Mechanisms: A Physiologic Interpretation of Causalgia and Its Related States

This is an unabridged republication of Livingston's monograph first published in 1943. It is most appropriate that this classic be brought to the attention of a younger generation. It is a concise,

The causalgia-dystonia syndrome.

It is impossible to decide whether this distressing syndrome is a true functional disorder of the central nervous system, or is of psychogenic origin, but two patients recovered spontaneously.

Pain Mechanisms: A physiologic Interpretation of Causalgia and Its Related States

The objective of this study was to establish a baseline level of understanding of the autonomic nervous system in relation to chronic pain syndromes and to investigate the role of emotion in the development of these disorders.