Reflections on Mirror Therapy

@article{Deconinck2015ReflectionsOM,
  title={Reflections on Mirror Therapy},
  author={Frederik J. A. Deconinck and Ana R. P. Smorenburg and Alex Benham and Annick Ledebt and Max G Feltham and Geert J.P. Savelsbergh},
  journal={Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair},
  year={2015},
  volume={29},
  pages={349 - 361}
}
Background. Mirror visual feedback (MVF), a phenomenon where movement of one limb is perceived as movement of the other limb, has the capacity to alleviate phantom limb pain or promote motor recovery of the upper limbs after stroke. The tool has received great interest from health professionals; however, a clear understanding of the mechanisms underlying the neural recovery owing to MVF is lacking. Objective. We performed a systematic review to assess the effect of MVF on brain activation… 

Parietal Activation Associated With Target-Directed Right Hand Movement Is Lateralized by Mirror Feedback to the Ipsilateral Hemisphere

TLDR
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the interaction of target directed movement and MVF on the activation of, and functional connectivity between, regions within the visuomotor network and revealed that the interaction between the ipsilateral parietal lobe and the motor cortex was significantly greater during target-directed movements with mirror feedback compared to veridical feedback.

Role of kinaesthetic motor imagery in mirror-induced visual illusion as intervention in post-stroke rehabilitation

TLDR
Evidence based on brain imaging studies for testing the hypothesis that neural processes associated with kinaesthetic motor imagery are attributed to ipsilateral M1 activation is reviewed, relationships in terms of shared neural substrates and mental processes between mirror-induced visual illusion and kinaesthesia generate new evidence on the role of the latter in mirror therapy.

Mirror Therapy Rehabilitation in Stroke: A Scoping Review of Upper Limb Recovery and Brain Activities

TLDR
MT is a promising intervention for improving upper limb function for individuals with chronic stroke and the need to incorporate EEG into the MT study to capture brain activity and understand the mechanism underlying the therapy is highlighted.

The Mirror Illusion Increases Motor Cortex Excitability in Children With and Without Hemiparesis

TLDR
MI increases the excitability of M1 in hemiparetic patients with contralateral corticospinal organization and in typically developing subjects, providing neurophysiological evidence supporting the application of mirror therapy in selected children and adolescents with hemiparesis.

Sequential neural activity in sensorimotor area and mirror neural system for graded mirror therapy with imagined hand movements.

TLDR
It is suggested that graded MT might be a sequential therapeutic program that can enhance the sensorimotor cortex and the MNS might have an initiating role in graded MT.

Motor Cortex Plasticity during Unilateral Finger Movement with Mirror Visual Feedback

TLDR
It can be concluded that a combination of motor training with MVF therapy may induce more robust neuroplastic changes through multisensory integration that is relevant to motor rehabilitation.

Do Mirror Glasses Have the Same Effect on Brain Activity as a Mirror Box? Evidence from a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study with Healthy Subjects

TLDR
It is concluded that the mirror glasses might be a promising alternative to the mirror box, as they induce similar patterns of brain activation and can be easy applied in therapy and research.

Movement-Related Cortical Potentials in Embodied Virtual Mirror Visual Feedback

TLDR
Embodied mirror visual feedback is likely to influence bilateral sensorimotor cortical subthreshold activity during movement preparation and execution observed in MRCPs in both healthy participants and a stroke patient.

Neural Processes Underlying Mirror-Induced Visual Illusion: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis

TLDR
The current meta-analysis is the first to reveal the visualization, mental rehearsal and motor-related processes underpinning the MVI and offers theoretical support on using MVI as a clinical intervention for post-stroke patients.
...

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